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comm second exam review

comm second exam review - According to Piagetian...

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According to Piagetian perspectives, what are characteristics of developmental stages? 1. Stages Distinct 2. Stages Invariant (we go in the same order) 3. Stages Universal (regardless of background, race) What are the four stages of cognitive development discussed in lecture? Sensory Motor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational Name and explain the four characteristics of the preoperational stage, providing an example of each one? Difficulty with fantasy/reality - younger children are frightened by things that are fantasies. Parents were asked what scared their children and it was all stuff that was pure fantasy. Egocentrism - kids cannot put themselves into other people. Kids think that how they see the world is how other people see it. There is perceptional boundness. Centration - kids can only focus in on 1 thing, & tune out others, visual salient. Difficulty understanding transformations - if something changes shape, they are different; same person can look different For each characteristic associated with the preoperational stage of development named above, explain the implication for children's fright reactions? Note: Provide an example of a study discussed in class as illustration. Difficulty with fantasy/reality - Parents were asked what scared their children and it was all stuff that was pure fantasy. Egocentrism - there was a movie about killer bees &, 2 versions. One version was visually salient w/a big ugly bee while the other had a little boy being attacked by bees. They could imagine themselves being the little boy. Centration - younger children will be more afraid of an ugly old lady being nice to a cat than a pretty old lady torturing a cat Difficulty understanding transformations - kids were traumatized by the incredible hulk even though the hulk is a good guy Name and describe differences in cognitive vs. non-cognitive strategies to reduce children's fright reactions to media. Subsequently, discuss the effectiveness of these two types of strategies for younger versus older children. A. Non-Cognitive Strategies (young and old) 1. Avoidance- don’t watch it 2. Physical Activities- grab a blanket & hide 3. Other People- a distraction 4. Desensitization- the more you are exposed to it, the less you are afraid of it B. Cognitive Strategies (old only) 1. Minimize Risk- the likelihood of the event occurring 2. Minimize Reality- it’s not real One of the earliest groups of studies concerning media effects was called the "Payne Fund Study." What did this study find in terms of media violence? Effects of Films & Childhood Play What was "Seduction of the Innocent"? It was a book by Dr. Frederick Wertham, a Psychiatrist, published in 1954. It warned that comic books were a bad form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. It was based on a flawed study.
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