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Study Guide- Exam 2

Study Guide- Exam 2 - STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Chapter 8 Spoken...

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STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 2 Chapter 8: Spoken Discourse 1. What is an utterance? The realization of a given nit of speech on a specific occasion in a specific text; a basic unit of spoken discourse (connected text- spoken, written, signed; ex- letter, speech, convo, essay, interview, novel, a toast); 2. What are the four components of context? y 1. Physical Context- location (ex. Gilmore Girls: dining room, living room, family room) 2. Epistemic Context- might be interpreted differently 3. Linguistic Context- what we already know 4. Social Context- social relationships among speakers/listeners (ex- mother/daughter, teacher/student, close, acquaintances) 3. What is the difference between a direct and indirect speech act? Direct Speech- when the words and sounds correspond with the intended meaning; Indirect Speech- when you intended meaning is different from referential meaning of spoken words (you have a hidden meaning) 4. Questions and commands are better understood in what type of context? to weather they are appropriate 5. What are performative speech acts and what characterizes them? It is a verbal action (usually beginning with “I” and in the present tense) examples- “I assert that PSU will win…” “I order Penn State to beat...”; explicating explains the subject 6. What are the two things that must be true for a speech act to be performative? 1. Subject of verb must be “I” or “we” (first person verbs) 2. Have present-tense verbs that describe the speech act 7. Explain implicature vs. entailment. Implicature- more general, an inference that does not logically lead to the conclusion by what is aid (can have implied meaning beyond the words uttered in conversation) example- I drive a Honda, implies I drive a car, but I drive a car doesn’t imply I drive a Honda; Entailment- refers to what conditions have to exist for a statement to be true (Not everyone is going to come- literally means no one could come even though it’s not implied), used often in advertising. 8. What is the difference between positive face and negative face? Positive Face- desire to be approved of and/or liked; Negative Face- desire to be unimpeded in one’s actions (my way or the highway) 9. Give an example of a face-threatening act. Telling someone something that a person does not want to hear (pressuring situation that threatens face to face; example- borrowing a new shirt) 10. According to the text, what is the power of compliments? Is based on how they are used (example- researcher argues that women use compliments as a positive politeness strategy, men will take them in a evaluator way) 11. What are discourse markers? The seemingly meaningless elements that tend to occur in spoke language, that are nonobligatory and that carry out pragmatic functions rather than convey semantic or truth-conditional meaning… organize the presentation of discourse, provide clues to listeners 1
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about what is the next and how it is related to what came before (usually occur at the periphery aka beginning) 12.
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Study Guide- Exam 2 - STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Chapter 8 Spoken...

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