Study Guide- Exam 1

Study Guide- Exam 1 - Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 A...

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Study Guide: Exam 1 Chapter 1: A Language Like English 1. Explain signifier + signified = sign: signifier (string of sounds, the linguistic form) + signified (the concept to which the signifier refers) = sign (the combination of the 2; what we might think of as meaningful words) 2. What is the difference between langue and parole? Langue- the underlying abstract system of language, the signs and their relationships to one another both in lexicon and combined into sentences; Parole- the actual speech 3. Explain recursivity: the capacity of language to embed an infinite number of elements into its grammatical structure; to keep adding details (“ands”), adding prepositional phrases (“in the morning”/“down the hill”) 4. Explain the difference between linguistic grammar and English teacher’s grammar: Linguistic grammar- how in general does it all go together. English teacher grammar- strict structure of one language (syntax) 5. What are the distinctive characteristics of human language? Shared (humans acquire speech in communities), Displacement (the ability to project forward and backward in time as well as discuss the abstract), Ambiguity (words have many meanings; separation of affect- distinguishes between emotional and factual contents of message), Creative (power of syntax) 6. What is a proto-language? One for which we have no written evidence, but which we can infer from comparison of its descendents and development of the laws according to which its sounds and word-forms change . What is an example of a proto-language? Indo-European 7. What are Labov’s 3 factors that motivate change in language? Internal Factors (sound, pronounce differently overtime), Social Factors (davenport v. sofa v. couch), Cognitive Factors (how much do we understand ) Chapter 2: Language and Authority 8. What is the French Academy? Wanted to remove Americanism from the language (walkman, software, etc) 9. Who are the grammar mavens? English teachers, editors, journalists, authors, etc 10. Does language change occur first in the written or spoken language? Language change occurs first in spoken language and often doesn’t make it the formal written language. 11. What are some examples of current grammar problems? Hopefully vs. I hope; sexist language (using man/men as a term to refer to all people; their (single/plural meaning); whom vs. who; “looking to. ..” vs. “looking for…” 12. What are some characteristics of Standard English? Not associated with any particular locality, most easily identifiable in print, it is the dialect used most by radio/TV announcers, related to social class and education, some people regard it as a myth, no one uses standard English all the time. (sometimes called the prestige social dialect) 13. The earliest grammars can be traced to where? Greece 1
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14. What happened during the Renaissance in terms of language? There was an interest in everything Latin, Greek and English; more specifically, writing in English. 15. What is the difference between descriptive and prescriptive grammar?
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Study Guide- Exam 1 - Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 A...

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