Exam Review 2

Exam Review 2 - Body Growth Brain Development Be able to...

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Exam 2 Review Be able to: Distinguish trends in body growth: cephalocaudal- “head to tail” growth, lower parts of body grow later than your head; proximodistal- “near to far” growth, extremities grow later than head, chest and trunk Describe the benefits of breastfeeding: correct fat-protein balance, nutritionally complete, disease protection, more digestible, better growth, easier transition to solid food Describe characteristics of nonorganic failure to thrive: baby is apathetic and withdrawn, has a wasted body (offered enough food, but no serious illness); often explained by family problems- lack of parental love, unhappy marriage, physical abuse, parental psychological disturbance; baby can catch up in growth if treated early neurons store and transmit information, synapses gaps between neurons where messages are sent Describe/define synaptic pruning & myelination: synaptic pruning- under stimulated neurons lose their synapses, return to a reserved state (support new skills or compensate for brain injuries); myelination- neurons enclosed in waxy myelin sheaths (facilitates transmission of neural impulses) Describe/define brain lateralization and plasticity: lateralization- specialization of the 2 hemispheres of the brain, each hemisphere controls opposite side of the body (left: verbal abilities, positive emotion; right: spatial abilities, negative emotion); plasticity- ability of other areas of the brain to reorganize and take over functions (other areas compensating) Distinguish experience-expectant and experience-dependent brain development: experience expectant development- ordinary experiences, expected by brain to grow normally; experience dependent development- specific experiences, varies widely (music, math, reading) Be able to: Distinguish gross and fine motor development: fine motor development- small movements (reaching, grasping), gross motor development- control over actions that help infants get around in the environment (crawling, standing, walking) Describe types of reaching and grasping: pre-reaching- just sticking arm out; reaching- 2 hands, then with 1 hand; ulnar grasp- move objects from hand to hand (using the whole hand); pincer grasp- holding with index and thumb Describe the 4 factors of motor skill development according to the dynamic systems perspective: 1. central nervous system development
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course ENGL 100 taught by Professor Baker during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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Exam Review 2 - Body Growth Brain Development Be able to...

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