Exam Review 1

Exam Review 1 - Review for Exam 1 Theories of Development...

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Review for Exam 1 Theories of Development Be able to: Describe what a theory is and what purposes theories serve A theory is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior. Theories: provide organizing framework, must scientifically verified, and no single theory explains everything Identify different stances of developmental theories (Continuous/Discontinuous, Nature/Nurture, One course/many) and identify theories that characterize these stances Continuous vs. Discontinuous: continuous- smooth patterns, acquisition of skills and knowledge slowly; discontinuous- stages, monumental Nature vs. Nurture: nature- inborn biological givens based on our genetic inheritance; nurture- physical and social world (environment) influence biological and psychological development One course of development vs. many: stage theories- assume people everywhere follow the same sequence of development; context- unique combo of genetic and environment circumstances that can result in different paths of development Describe how the three parts of personality interact according to Freud Id: source of biological needs and desires (what a child pleasures, uncontrollable) Ego: conscious, rational part of personality (ask for what they want) Superego: the conscience, moral values and standards Bandura (Social Learning Theory): emphasizes the role of modeling (imitation or observation learning) as a basis for development; consequences of an observed behavior will predict future behavior; grants child an active role in their own learning Piaget (Stages of Cognitive Learning): Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)- learns by explaining and interacting with environment; Preoccupational (2-7 years)- begins thinking; Concrete Operational (7-11 years)- logical thinking; Formal Operational (11+ years)- abstract thinking Vygotsky (Sociocultural Theory): transition of culture to each generation (beliefs, customs, skills), industrial vs. tribal upbringing, social interaction necessary to learn culture, cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society. Be able to distinguish the different levels of systems in the ecological systems theory
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course ENGL 100 taught by Professor Baker during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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Exam Review 1 - Review for Exam 1 Theories of Development...

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