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Exam Review 3 - Body Growth Brain Development Be able to...

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Exam 3 Review Body Growth & Brain Development Be able to: Describe general trends in body growth during this period: body shape becomes more streamlined, lose baby fat, muscles grow stronger, cartilage turns to bone, posture and balance improve, increase motor coordination Distinguish different parts of the brain and what aspects of development they are responsible for: o frontal lobe- attention, planning, organization (rapid increase in myelination) o left hemisphere (more active)- language skills, handedness o right hemisphere (slower)- lateralization is occurring o cerebellum- aids balance, control of body movements and thinking o reticular formation- maintain alertness and consciousness o hippocampus- memory and spatial ability, encoding and retrieval o corpus callosum- connects 2 cerebral hemispheres (coordination of movement, integrates thinking skills) Describe the effect of hormones & emotional well-being on growth: growth hormone (GH)- development of body tissue; thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)- brain development; emotional distress (home life) can cause psychosocial dwarfism (2-15 yrs)- no emotional support decreases GH Describe characteristics of nutrition in early childhood and strategies to encourage good nutrition: good nutrition- high quality diet, similar to adults but smaller portions; encourage good nutrition- offer varied healthy diet and snacks, unpressured exposure to food, pleasant meal time and avoid food as a reward Describe the relationship between malnutrition and disease: a poor diet suppresses the immune system Motor Development Be able to: Distinguish gross and fine motor development: gross motor development- upper and lower body skills combine (walking, running, jumping, catching, throwing, steering); fine motor development- control of hands and finger improves (dressing, eating, drawing, puzzles, cutting, tying shoes) Describe gender differences in motor development: boys- gross motor skills, better with power and force (throwing a ball); girls- fine motor skills, balance, foot movement Describe ways to enhance motor development in early childhood: mastered through everyday play (formal lessons have a little impact), provide appropriate play space and equipment, daily routines
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