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ERP-3 - Planning Design and Implementation of Enterprise...

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Planning, Design, and Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Objective Understand the information systems development process for enterprise systems, including planning, design, and implementation. In this chapter, you will learn about the traditional approach to information systems design and how it compares with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems design. ERP design and implementation differs from traditional systems development. In ERP design, the organization acquires a packaged software system that defines processes and practices for the business. The main challenge in implementing ERP is whether to change the organization’s business processes to fit the software or whether to modify the software to fit the organization’s business processes. In this chapter, you will learn about the trade-offs involved in re-engineering business processes to fit the software versus customizing the software. Traditional Systems Development The traditional systems development life cycle included the phases of problem definition, feasibility study, systems analysis, systems design, detailed design, implementation, and maintenance (see Table 3-1). In systems analysis, the analyst undertakes a detailed analysis of the current system, using tools and techniques, such as process models and data models. Using these models, the systems designer analyzes bottlenecks, duplication of effort, inconsistencies, and other problems with the current system. The fundamental approach used in traditional systems development is to analyze the current system’s shortcomings and to develop a “new” system, which builds in changes in processes and data that will support the firm’s business requirements. The rationale is that automating the current system is counterproductive because the current system may have problems, including redundant processes, insufficient data, and inefficient workflow. The systems design process provides an opportunity to reengineer or re-invent the current system prior to automating it. The systems design process seeks to assure logical database design prior to detailed design, during which the specifications for the physical system are developed (e.g., output design, input design). Once the physical design specifications are set, then the system is programmed, tested, and implemented. The problem with the traditional systems development life cycle is that it takes too much time and costs too much. The traditional life cycle follows a ‘waterfall” approach, in which there is a sequence of steps, starting with planning and analysis to be followed by design, detailed design, and implementation. Since the mid-1980s, corn- panics have been seeking faster methods of developing information systems.
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New Approaches to Systems Development Three different approaches designed to speed up the building of information systems were prototyping, end-user development, and software packages. In the late 1980s, prototyping was introduced as a methodology for obtaining user requirements more quickly and accurately. Using
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