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Unformatted text preview: Review Questions – Midterm I 1. Ralph's 2-1/2 year old son Matty is choking his little dog Casey. Ralph tells Matty that his behavior is hurting Casey. Matty laughs and chokes the dog harder. Contrast Freud and Skinner in their explanations of and solutions to this problem. FREUD: Psychoanalytic points of view, 2 primary forces of human behavior are sex and aggression Superego and ego- hasn’t developed yet. Parents act as moral voice; need to keep telling Matty not to do. Superego and it so that it can integrate into Mattys own superego. Superego- “ideal self”. You at your best. Contains your values. Ego – reality principle, increasing ability to scan and test the world. sets limits on our choices. Tells superego what and what not to do. Delays gratification, keeps ID safe and with enough pleasure. ID – impulse and instinct. Acting on his ID of aggression instinct to squeeze the dog. “Cauldron full of seething excitation” Pleasure principle – do whatever makes you happy. Impulse and instinct. All energy comes from id. Explanation: Matty’s Superego and ego is not yet developed therefore purely acting on ID. Solution: Parents need to keep acting as moral voice to tell him to stop, eventually integrating into Matty’s own developing superego SKINNER: behaviorist point of view. Interested in behavior AFTER an action. Freedom doesn’t exist, all the causes for what we do is outside of us, the world of conditioning; rewards, punishments, etc. Explanatory fictions – reasons ideas that people come up with to explain their Actions, when unaware of true causes. Explanation: caused by influences from outside world, like something seen on TV. Solution: Operant Conditioning – rewards/punishments after a behavior. Rewards to promote behavior, punishments to extinguish. Variable ratio is most effective- in which he would get rewards on random occasions for being nice to dog. Most effective because it would last the longest and would not know when to expect rewards so it would let to him always being nice to dog. 2. With reference to The Student , analyze his problem using the theories of May and Bugental. Strive to integrate the relevant and complementary parts of each theory. Be as detailed and specific as possible. MAY: Extentialism- more of a philosophy than a psychology. Tendency to lose human qualities, become manipulated objects. Existence precedes essence. Being is powerful, it implies action and potential. Existence holds potential that we could have passion, creativity, and courage. Also holds other potentials anxiety is real, pain, rejection, dread, loneliness, the fact that we are going to die is real. Explanation: student is being non-being than being, no meaning or purpose....
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- Spring '08
- physically courageous person, old son Matty