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Unformatted text preview: Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking [Author removed at request of original publisher] UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA LIBRARIES PUBLISHING EDITION, 2016. THIS EDITION ADAPTED FROM A WORK ORIGINALLY PRODUCED IN 2011 BY A PUBLISHER WHO HAS REQUESTED THAT IT NOT RECEIVE ATTRIBUTION. MINNEAPOLIS, MN Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. This book was produced using Pressbooks.com, and PDF rendering was done by PrinceXML. Contents Publisher Information ix Chapter 1: Why Public Speaking Matters Today 1.1 Why Is Public Speaking Important? 1.2 The Process of Public Speaking 1.3 Chapter Exercises 3 10 20 Chapter 2: Ethics Matters: Understanding the Ethics of Public Speaking 2.1 The Ethics Pyramid 2.2 Ethics in Public Speaking 2.3 Free Speech 2.4 Chapter Exercises 22 27 39 43 Chapter 3: Speaking Confidently 3.1 What Is Communication Apprehension? 3.2 All Anxiety Is Not the Same: Sources of Communication Apprehension 3.3 Reducing Communication Apprehension 3.4 Coping with the Unexpected 3.5 Chapter Exercises 47 53 57 65 68 Chapter 4: The Importance of Listening 4.1 Listening vs. Hearing 4.2 Listening Styles 4.3 Why Listening Is Difficult 4.4 Stages of Listening 4.5 Listening Critically 4.6 Chapter Exercises 71 75 79 86 91 99 Chapter 5: Audience Analysis 5.1 Why Conduct an Audience Analysis 103 5.2 Three Types of Audience Analysis 5.3 Conducting Audience Analysis 5.4 Using Your Audience Analysis 5.5 Chapter Exercises 111 120 124 127 Chapter 6: Finding a Purpose and Selecting a Topic 6.1 General Purposes of Speaking 6.2 Selecting a Topic 6.3 What If You Draw a Blank? 6.4 Specific Purposes 6.5 Conclusion 6.6 Chapter Exercises 130 143 148 155 161 162 Chapter 7: Researching Your Speech 7.1 What Is Research? 7.2 Developing a Research Strategy 7.3 Citing Sources 7.4 Chapter Exercises 167 173 189 202 Chapter 8: Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments 8.1 Using Research as Support 8.2 Exploring Types of Support 8.3 Using Support and Creating Arguments 8.4 Chapter Exercises 206 213 225 235 Chapter 9: Introductions Matter: How to Begin a Speech Effectively 9.1 The Importance of an Introduction 9.2 The Attention-Getter: The First Step of an Introduction 9.3 Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction 9.4 Analyzing an Introduction 9.5 Chapter Exercises 239 244 253 263 267 Chapter 10: Creating the Body of a Speech 10.1 Determining Your Main Ideas 273 10.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns 10.3 Keeping Your Speech Moving 10.4 Analyzing a Speech Body 10.5 Chapter Exercises 282 289 295 298 Chapter 11: Concluding with Power 11.1 Why Conclusions Matter 11.2 Steps of a Conclusion 11.3 Analyzing a Conclusion 11.4 Chapter Exercises 302 305 313 317 Chapter 12: Outlining 12.1 Why Outline? 12.2 Types of Outlines 12.3 Using Outlining for Success 12.4 Chapter Exercises 320 326 337 341 Chapter 13: The Importance of Language 13.1 Oral versus Written Language 13.2 Using Language Effectively 13.3 Six Elements of Language 13.4 Chapter Exercises 345 350 361 366 Chapter 14: Delivering the Speech 14.1 Four Methods of Delivery 14.2 Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery 14.3 Using Notes Effectively 14.4 Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery 14.5 Chapter Exercises 370 375 380 384 397 Chapter 15: Presentation Aids: Design and Usage 15.1 Functions of Presentation Aids 15.2 Types of Presentation Aids 15.3 Media to Use for Presentation Aids 402 410 429 15.4 Tips for Preparing Presentation Aids 15.5 Chapter Exercises 437 443 Chapter 16: Informative Speaking 16.1 Informative Speaking Goals 16.2 Types of Informative Speeches 16.3 Chapter Exercises 448 456 466 Chapter 17: Persuasive Speaking 17.1 Persuasion: An Overview 17.2 Types of Persuasive Speeches 469 479 17.3 Organizing Persuasive Speeches 17.4 Chapter Exercises 484 492 Chapter 18: Speaking to Entertain 18.1 Understanding Entertaining Speeches 18.2 Special-Occasion Speeches 18.3 Keynote Speaking 18.4 Chapter Exercises 496 500 510 516 Appendix: Your First Speech Appendix: 2. Foundations of Public Speaking Appendix: 3. Speech Preparation Appendix: 4. Speech Practice Appendix: 5. Conclusion Appendix: 1. The Public Speaking Pyramid 519 524 528 531 532 Please share your supplementary material! 533 Publisher Information Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking is adapted from a work produced and distributed under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-SA) in 2011 by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution. This adapted edition is produced by the University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing through the eLearning Support Initiative. This adaptation has reformatted the original text, and replaced some images and figures to make the resulting whole more shareable. This adaptation has not significantly altered or updated the original 2011 text. This work is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialShareAlike license. Chapter 1: Why Public Speaking Matters Today Public Speaking in the Twenty-First Century Nadine Dereza – ‘Insider Secrets of Public Speaking’. – CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. Public speaking is the process of designing and delivering a message to an audience. Effective public speaking involves understanding your audience and speaking goals, choosing elements for the speech that will engage your audience with your topic, and delivering your message skillfully. Good public speakers understand that they must plan, organize, and revise their material in order to develop an effective speech. This book will help you understand the basics of effective public speaking and guide you through the process of creating your own presentations. We’ll begin by discussing the ways in which public speaking is relevant to you and can benefit you in your career, education, and personal life. In a world where people are bombarded with messages through television, social media, and the Internet, one of the first questions you may ask is, “Do people still give speeches?” Well, type the words “public speaking” into Amazon.com or Barnesandnoble.com, and you will find more than two thousand books with the words “public speaking” in the title. Most of these and other books related to public speaking are not college textbooks. In fact, many books written about public speaking are intended for very specific audiences: A Handbook of Public Speaking for Scientists and Engineers (by Peter Kenny), Excuse Me! Let Me Speak!: A Young Person’s Guide to Public Speaking (by Michelle J. Dyett-Welcome), Professionally Speaking: Public Speaking for Health Professionals (by Frank De Piano and Arnold Melnick), and Speaking Effectively: A Guide for Air Force Speakers (by John A. Kline). Although these different books address specific issues related to nurses, engineers, or air force officers, the content is basically the Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking 2 same. If you search for “public speaking” in an online academic database, you’ll find numerous articles on public speaking in business magazines (e.g., BusinessWeek, Nonprofit World) and academic journals (e.g., Harvard Business Review, Journal of Business Communication). There is so much information available about public speaking because it continues to be relevant even with the growth of technological means of communication. As author and speaker Scott Berkun writes in his blog, “For all our tech, we’re still very fond of the most low tech thing there is: a monologue” (Berkun, 2009). People continue to spend millions of dollars every year to listen to professional speakers. For example, attendees of the 2010 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference, which invites speakers from around the world to share their ideas in short, eighteen-minute presentations, paid six thousand dollars per person to listen to fifty speeches over a four-day period. Technology can also help public speakers reach audiences that were not possible to reach in the past. Millions of people heard about and then watched Randy Pausch’s “Last Lecture” online. In this captivating speech, Randy Pausch, a Carnegie Mellon University professor who retired at age forty-six after developing inoperable tumors, delivered his last lecture to the students, faculty, and staff. This inspiring speech was turned into a DVD and a best-selling book that was eventually published in more than thirtyfive languages (Carnegie Mellon University, 2011). We realize that you may not be invited to TED to give the speech of your life or create a speech so inspirational that it touches the lives of millions via YouTube; however, all of us will find ourselves in situations where we will be asked to give a speech, make a presentation, or just deliver a few words. In this chapter, we will first address why public speaking is important, and then we will discuss models that illustrate the process of public speaking itself. References Berkun, S. (2009, March 4). Does public speaking matter in 2009? [Web log message]. Retrieved from . Carnegie Mellon University. (n.d.). Randy Pausch’s last lecture. Retrieved June 6, 2011, from . 1.1 Why Is Public Speaking Important? Learning Objectives 1. Explore three types of public speaking in everyday life: informative, persuasive, and entertaining. 2. Understand the benefits of taking a course in public speaking. 3. Explain the benefits people get from engaging in public speaking. Christian Pierret – Leader – CC BY 2.0. In today’s world, we are constantly bombarded with messages both good and bad. No matter where you live, where you work or go to school, or what kinds of media you use, you are probably exposed to hundreds. if not thousands, of advertising messages every day. Researcher Norman W. Edmund estimates that by 2020 the amount of knowledge in the world will double every seventy-three days (Edmund, 2005). Because we live in a world where we are overwhelmed with content, communicating information in a way that is accessible to others is more important today than ever before. To help us further understand why public speaking is important, we will first examine public speaking in everyday life. We will then discuss how public speaking can benefit you personally. Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking 4 Everyday Public Speaking Every single day people across the United States and around the world stand up in front of some kind of audience and speak. In fact, there’s even a monthly publication that reproduces some of the top speeches from around the United States called Vital Speeches of the Day ( ). Although public speeches are of various types, they can generally be grouped into three categories based on their intended purpose: informative, persuasive, and entertaining. Informative Speaking One of the most common types of public speaking is informative speaking. The primary purpose of informative presentations is to share one’s knowledge of a subject with an audience. Reasons for making an informative speech vary widely. For example, you might be asked to instruct a group of coworkers on how to use new computer software or to report to a group of managers how your latest project is coming along. A local community group might wish to hear about your volunteer activities in New Orleans during spring break, or your classmates may want you to share your expertise on Mediterranean cooking. What all these examples have in common is the goal of imparting information to an audience. Informative speaking is integrated into many different occupations. Physicians often lecture about their areas of expertise to medical students, other physicians, and patients. Teachers find themselves presenting to parents as well as to their students. Firefighters give demonstrations about how to effectively control a fire in the house. Informative speaking is a common part of numerous jobs and other everyday activities. As a result, learning how to speak effectively has become an essential skill in today’s world. Persuasive Speaking A second common reason for speaking to an audience is to persuade others. In our everyday lives, we are often called on to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade others to change their beliefs, take an action, or reconsider a decision. Advocating for music education in your local school district, convincing clients to purchase your company’s products, or inspiring high school students to attend college all involve influencing other people through public speaking. For some people, such as elected officials, giving persuasive speeches is a crucial part of attaining and continuing career success. Other people make careers out of speaking to groups of people who pay to listen to them. Motivational authors and speakers, such as Les Brown ( ), make millions of dollars each year from people who want to be motivated to do better in their lives. Brian Tracy, another professional speaker and author, specializes in helping business leaders become more productive and effective in the workplace ( ). Whether public speaking is something you do every day or just a few times a year, persuading others is a 5 [Author removed at request of original publisher] challenging task. If you develop the skill to persuade effectively, it can be personally and professionally rewarding. Entertaining Speaking Entertaining speaking involves an array of speaking occasions ranging from introductions to wedding toasts, to presenting and accepting awards, to delivering eulogies at funerals and memorial services in addition to after-dinner speeches and motivational speeches. Entertaining speaking has been important since the time of the ancient Greeks, when Aristotle identified epideictic speaking (speaking in a ceremonial context) as an important type of address. As with persuasive and informative speaking, there are professionals, from religious leaders to comedians, who make a living simply from delivering entertaining speeches. As anyone who has watched an awards show on television or has seen an incoherent best man deliver a wedding toast can attest, speaking to entertain is a task that requires preparation and practice to be effective. Personal Benefits of Public Speaking Oral communication skills were the number one skill that college graduates found useful in the business world, according to a study by sociologist Andrew Zekeri (Zekeri, 2004). That fact alone makes learning about public speaking worthwhile. However, there are many other benefits of communicating effectively for the hundreds of thousands of college students every year who take public speaking courses. Let’s take a look at some of the personal benefits you’ll get both from a course in public speaking and from giving public speeches. Benefits of Public Speaking Courses In addition to learning the process of creating and delivering an effective speech, students of public speaking leave the class with a number of other benefits as well. Some of these benefits include • developing critical thinking skills, • fine-tuning verbal and nonverbal skills, • overcoming fear of public speaking. Developing Critical Thinking Skills One of the very first benefits you will gain from your public speaking course is an increased ability to think critically. Problem solving is one of many critical thinking skills you will engage in during this Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking 6 course. For example, when preparing a persuasive speech, you’ll have to think through real problems affecting your campus, community, or the world and provide possible solutions to those problems. You’ll also have to think about the positive and negative consequences of your solutions and then communicate your ideas to others. At first, it may seem easy to come up with solutions for a campus problem such as a shortage of parking spaces: just build more spaces. But after thinking and researching further you may find out that building costs, environmental impact from loss of green space, maintenance needs, or limited locations for additional spaces make this solution impractical. Being able to think through problems and analyze the potential costs and benefits of solutions is an essential part of critical thinking and of public speaking aimed at persuading others. These skills will help you not only in public speaking contexts but throughout your life as well. As we stated earlier, college graduates in Zekeri’s study rated oral communication skills as the most useful for success in the business world. The second most valuable skill they reported was problem-solving ability, so your public speaking course is doubly valuable! Another benefit to public speaking is that it will enhance your ability to conduct and analyze research. Public speakers must provide credible evidence within their speeches if they are going to persuade various audiences. So your public speaking course will further refine your ability to find and utilize a range of sources. Fine-Tuning Verbal and Nonverbal Skills A second benefit of taking a public speaking course is that it will help you fine-tune your verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Whether you competed in public speaking in high school or this is your first time speaking in front of an audience, having the opportunity to actively practice communication skills and receive professional feedback will help you become a better overall communicator. Often, people don’t even realize that they twirl their hair or repeatedly mispronounce words while speaking in public settings until they receive feedback from a teacher during a public speaking course. People around the United States will often pay speech coaches over one hundred dollars per hour to help them enhance their speaking skills. You have a built-in speech coach right in your classroom, so it is to your advantage to use the opportunity to improve your verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Overcoming Fear of Public Speaking An additional benefit of taking a public speaking class is that it will help reduce your fear of public speaking. Whether they’ve spoken in public a lot or are just getting started, most people experience some anxiety when engaging in public speaking. Heidi Rose and Andrew Rancer evaluated students’ levels of public speaking anxiety during both the first and last weeks of their public speaking class and found that those levels decreased over the course of the semester (Rose & Rancer, 1993). One explanation is that people often have little exposure to public speaking. By taking a course in public speaking, students become better acquainted with the public speaking process, making them more confident and less apprehensive. In addition, you will learn specific strategies for overcoming the challenges of speech anxiety. We will discuss this topic in greater detail in Chapter 3 “Speaking Confidently”. 7 [Author removed at request of original publisher] Benefits of Engaging in Public Speaking Once you’ve learned the basic skills associated with public speaking, you’ll find that being able to effectively speak in public has profound benefits, including • influencing the world around you, • developing leadership skills, • becoming a thought leader. Influencing the World around You If you don’t like something about your local government, then speak out about your issue! One of the best ways to get our society to change is through the power of speech. Common citizens in the United States and around the world, like you, are influencing the world in real ways through the power of speech. Just type the words “citizens speak out” in a search engine and you’ll find numerous examples of how common citizens use the power of speech to make real changes in the world—for example...
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