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LECTURE NOTES - 1 GEOGRAPHY 020 LECTURE NOTES EXAM 1 Space...

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1 GEOGRAPHY 020 LECTURE NOTES EXAM 1 9/4/07 Space and Power: The Panoptican What is power in a social context? o Direct (do this or you won’t get this) vs. Indirect (influence); Visible vs. Invisible Questions of choice—resistance How can spatial relationships be used to create, direct or reinforce power? To create a certain kind of citizen or society? Prisons before The Panoptican Big stones, low visibility (couldn’t see prisoners—made easy to plan escapes, tunnel, smuggle) Little or no incentive for good behavior Panoptican: Origins Design for better prison Jeremy Bentham in 1791 “Panoptican” – provides a comprehensive or panoramic view. Written about extensively in 70’s and 80’s by French philosopher Michel Foucault. Key Features Single cell, glass doorway Guard tower—blinds (guards can see out, but prisoners can’t see in) Creates a feeling like a “cop over shoulder” (internalize surveillance) The Panoptican: Application Benthams design became fundamental to prison design. 9/6/07 Influence and Meaning of Places Places provide: o Physical geography: deals with earth’s natural processes and their outcomes. o Human geography: reveals how and why geography relationships are important. o Regional geography: regions have similar attributes distinct from that of other places Why Places Matter? Geography knowledge is necessary because the world is increasingly characterized by: o Instant global communities o Rapidly changing international relationships 1
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2 o Unexpected local change o Growing evidence of environment degradation Places Provide Structure to people’s economic and social lives Opportunity and constraints in terms of people’s long-term social well-being. Scale (pg. 7)—represent a tangible partioning of space that consolidates and contributes to dominant patterns of geographical organizations. Local event (robbery) vs. Global event (WTC bombing) Interdependent Global Overlap World regions State Nation Supranational organizations (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN) Spatial Scale (see book) Basic Tools of Geography Understand spatial processes Cartography (GIS, remote sensing, GPS) Qualitative Methods (Interviews, Ethnography, Participatory) Quantative Methods (Surveys, Random samples) Maps are Social Constructs Maps are a representation of places Social construction: the idea that things are socially variable rather than determined by natural laws Scale: Projection: is a systematic rending on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on earth’s surface. Symbols: icons used to direct our attention to specific features Making Maps Who are the authors? What is their perspective?
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