Nutrition for Sport, Exercise, and Health.c2.pdf - NUTRITION FOR SPORT EXERCISE AND HEALTH Marie A Spano MS RD CSCS CSSD Spano Sports Nutrition

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Unformatted text preview: NUTRITION FOR SPORT, EXERCISE, AND HEALTH Marie A. Spano, MS, RD, CSCS, CSSD Spano Sports Nutrition Consulting, LLC Laura J. Kruskall, PhD, RDN, CSSD, LD, FACSM, FAND University of Nevada, Las Vegas D. Travis Thomas, PhD, RDN, CSSD, LD, FAND University of Kentucky Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Spano, Marie A., 1972- author. | Kruskall, Laura J., 1967- author. | Thomas, D. Travis, 1977- author. Title: Nutrition for sport, exercise, and health / Marie A. Spano, Laura J. Kruskall, and D. Travis Thomas. Description: Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics, [2017] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016025648| ISBN 9781450414876 (print) | ISBN 9781492546108 (e-book) Subjects: | MESH: Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena | Physical Fitness--physiology Classification: LCC RA784 | NLM QT 263 | DDC 613.7--dc23 LC record available at ISBN: 978-1-4504-1487-6 (print) Copyright © 2018 by Spano Sports Nutrition Consulting, LLC, Laura J. Kruskall, and D. Travis Thomas All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. Permission notices for material reprinted in this book from other sources can be found on pages ix-x. The web addresses cited in this text were current as of April 2017, unless otherwise noted. Senior Acquisitions Editor: Amy N. Tocco; Developmental Editor: Melissa J. Zavala; Managing Editor: Anna Lan Seaman; Copyeditor: John Wentworth; Indexer: Nancy Ball; Permissions Manager: Dalene Reeder; Senior Graphic Designer: Joe Buck; Cover Designer: Keith Blomberg; Photograph (cover): lzf/ iStockphoto/Getty Images; Photo Asset Manager: Laura Fitch; Photo Production Manager: Jason Allen; Senior Art Manager: Kelly Hendren; Art Style Development: Joanne Brummett; Illustrations: © Human Kinetics, unless otherwise noted; Printer: Walsworth Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program. Human Kinetics Website: United States: Human Kinetics P.O. Box 5076 Champaign, IL 61825-5076 800-747-4457 e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100 Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5 800-465-7301 (in Canada only) e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics 107 Bradford Road Stanningley Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom +44 (0) 113 255 5665 e-mail: [email protected] For information about Human Kinetics’ coverage in other areas of the world, please visit our website: E5541 CONTENTS Preface vii Photo Credits  ix PART I  THE BIG PICTURE 1 CHAPTER 1 Optimizing Health and Well-Being Throughout the Lifespan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Nutrients General Nutrition Guidelines Exercise Sport Nutrition Credentials and Scope of Practice Summary 4 6 11 16 18 22 CHAPTER 2 Energy Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 How Energy Fuels the Body Human Energy Metabolism Benefits of Training on Health and Athletic Performance Biosynthesis and Storage Pathways in Metabolism Hormonal Control of Metabolism Measuring Energy Intake and Expenditure An Emerging Topic of Interest for Athletes Summary 26 28 47 49 51 52 59 60 PART II  ROLE OF ENERGY-YIELDING MACRONUTRIENTS 63 CHAPTER 3 Carbohydrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Classification of Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption Metabolism of Carbohydrate Regulation of Glucose Metabolism Glycemic Response Carbohydrate as Fuel During Exercise Role of Carbohydrate in Exercise Fatigue Carbohydrate Recommendations Carbohydrate Content of Foods Carbohydrate and Health Summary 66 69 71 72 75 78 78 79 82 82 91 iii iv Contents CHAPTER 4 Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Lipids and Dietary Fat Triglycerides and Health Dietary Recommendations Digestion and Metabolism Dietary Fats and Exercise Summary 94 97 109 110 111 112 CHAPTER 5 Protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Amino Acids Classification and Function of Protein Digestion and Absorption Metabolic Fate of Protein in the Body Protein in the Diet Protein Quality Protein in Exercise and Sport Vegetarianism and Veganism Protein Deficiency and Excess Protein Summary PART III  ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENTS, WATER, AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS 116 119 127 130 133 135 140 146 147 148 151 CHAPTER 6 Vitamins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Fat-Soluble Vitamins Water-Soluble Vitamins Summary 154 170 176 CHAPTER 7 Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Macrominerals Trace Minerals Summary 180 194 202 Contents  v CHAPTER 8 Water and Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Water Electrolytes Water, Electrolytes, and Exercise Performance Hydration Assessment Hydration Recommendations for Exercise Summary 206 213 214 218 220 224 CHAPTER 9 Nutritional Supplements and Other Substances Commonly Used in Sport . . . . . . . . . . 226 Popularity of Supplement Use in Sport Regulation of Dietary Supplements Evaluation of Dietary Supplements Common Sports Foods and Medical Supplements Common Supplements Marketed for Fat Loss Common Supplements for General Health Drugs Commonly Used in Sports Alcohol Use Summary PART IV  APPLICATION OF NUTRITION FOR SPORT, EXERCISE, AND HEALTH 228 228 231 236 242 246 248 249 250 253 CHAPTER 10 Body Weight and Composition . . . . . . . . 254 Factors Contributing to Body Weight and Composition Body Weight and Composition Concerns in Activity and Sport Estimating Body Composition Summary 257 257 262 269 CHAPTER 11 Nutrition for Aerobic Endurance . . . . . . . 270 ATP Production During Endurance Activities Energy-Yielding Macronutrient Requirements of Endurance Athletes Food Selection to Meet Nutrient Requirements Types of Carbohydrate and Performance Unique Challenges Facing Endurance Athletes Impacts of Endurance Training on Macronutrient Metabolism Summary 272 273 283 284 285 288 289 vi Contents CHAPTER 12 Nutrition for Resistance Training . . . . . . . 290 Nutrition Before Resistance Training Nutrition During Resistance Training Nutrition After Resistance Training How Daily Dietary Intake Affects Muscle How Dieting Affects Muscle Nutrients That Support Muscle Functioning Sport Supplements for Resistance Training Summary 292 294 294 301 305 308 308 308 CHAPTER 13 Changing Weight and Body Composition . . . . 310 Understanding Body Fat Decreasing Body Fat Gaining Muscle Mass Losing Fat and Gaining Muscle at the Same Time Summary 312 316 324 327 328 CHAPTER 14 Nutrition Concerns for Special Populations . . . 330 Children and Adolescents Masters Athletes Individuals With Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Pregnant Women Vegetarian Populations Individuals With Disordered Eating and Eating Disorders Summary Glossary 371 References 387 Index 457 About the Authors  475 332 339 343 350 355 361 368 PREFACE Nutrition affects overall health and exercise performance in myriad ways. In Nutrition for Sport, Exercise, and Health our goal is to provide readers with practical information they can use to enhance their everyday lives as well as the sports and physical activities that are part of their lives. For the student with an interest in working in the field of sport nutrition, sports medicine, or another related field, our goal is to supply in a single text the foundation of knowledge you will need to get the best start on your career path. Given the plethora of nutrition misinformation consumers are hearing and reading from television, the Internet, magazines, coaches, trainers, parents, and their peers, this comprehensive textbook will help readers distinguish between nutrition recommendations that are based on quality scientific research and those that are not backed by science and have no foothold in basic biochemistry or physiology. WHO NEEDS THIS BOOK We have written Nutrition for Sport, Exercise, and Health for students studying fitness, exercise science, health, nutrition, physical therapy, and closely related majors. This text is also an excellent reference for athletic trainers, strength coaches, wellness professionals, health coaches, health and physical education teachers, coaches, fitness instructors, athletic directors, exercise physiologists, registered dietitians, military personnel, and government employees working in health and human performance. TOPICS COVERED Our text covers the basics of nutrition for health, including the functions and daily allowances for the energy-yielding macronutrients—carbohydrate, protein, and fat—and micronutrients; nutrition in health and disease prevention; population-based nutrition considerations for training and sports; and practical information on measuring and altering body composition. The text is organized in a logical sequence, with each chapter building on what was learned in the previous chapter. In part I, we provide an overview of the role nutrition plays in overall well-being throughout the life span. Energy metabolism is discussed, including the roles of macronutrients and micronutrients and how exercise affects nutrient needs. The three chapters in part II focus on each energy-yielding macronutrient, its role in health and disease, and dietary recommendations that support health and an active lifestyle. After learning about macronutrients, readers are introduced in part III to the roles of micronutrients in health and performance. Chapters on vitamins and minerals cover population-specific intake recommendations, consequences of excess intake or dietary shortfalls, and supplemental intake. This part of the book covers water and electrolytes as well as nutrition supplements and drugs. The role of fluid in health and human performance is discussed, and fluid and electrolyte guidelines are recommended. The chapter on nutrition supplements and drugs covers popular dietary supplements, supplement claims, third-party testing, drugs in sports, and the untoward effects of alcohol on sports performance. In part IV we provide information on the application of nutrition to health and fitness. Ideal body weight and body composition is discussed, including how to measure body composition and achieve optimal body composition and weight; nutrition recommendations are provided for aerobic endurance and resistance training. In the final chapter we discuss nutrition concerns and recommendations for special populations and individuals at distinct life stages, including children, adolescents, masters athletes, diabetics, vegetarians, pregnant women, and individuals with eating disorders or disordered eating. vii viii Preface UNIQUE FEATURES THAT ENHANCE LEARNING The book includes a number of features that help highlight key concepts and provide practical examples to enhance understanding. Each chapter includes the following elements: ❯ Chapter objectives Included at the start of each chapter, these give you an overview of what lies ahead. ❯ “Putting It Into Perspective” sidebars These elements help engage college readers by providing information that is relevant to them, including practical case studies; tips on improving health, enhancing sports performance, or achieving a desired physique; and other helpful material that can be applied in everyday living. ❯ “Do You Know?” sidebars These brief information nuggets provide key insights, little-known details, and evidence-based facts that might surprise you. ❯ “Reflection Time” sidebars These elements prompt readers to dig deeper and consider how certain concepts presented in the book relate to their everyday lives. ❯ “Nutrition Tip” sidebars Intriguing, real-world tips related to nutrition for the college student. ❯ Review questions Questions to evoke further thought and ensure that readers have digested the key points in each chapter. ❯ Glossary A handy listing of key terms to help you fill your memory bank—or for your future reference. INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES Instructor ancillaries include an instructor guide, presentation package, test package, and chapter quizzes. The instructor guide includes chapter outlines and chapter summaries, objectives, and review questions from the book. The presentation package includes PowerPoint slides and an image bank of most of the art and tables from the book that instructors may use to create customized lecture presentations. The test package and chapter quizzes provide questions in various formats that can be used to create customized tests. Ancillary products supporting this textbook are available at NutritionForSportExerciseAndHealth. PHOTO CREDITS Table of contents photos in chronological order: ©Monkey Business Images Ltd/age footstock; Bojan89/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; Alexander Chernyakov/ Getty Images; karma_pema/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Jordanlye/Getty Images/iStockphoto; © Human Kinetics; © Human Kinetics; © Human Kinetics; © Human Kinetics; GlobalStock /Getty Images/ iStockphoto; © Human Kinetics; © Human Kinetics; ©pressmaster/fotolia.com; skynesher/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Page 1: ©Andres Rodriguez/fotolia. com; Page 2: ©Monkey Business Images Ltd/age fotostock; Page 10: ©PhotoDisc/Getty Images; Page 12: © Human Kinetics; Page 24: Bojan89/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Page 63: © 2001 RubberBall Productions; Page 64: Alexander Chernyakov/Getty Images; Page 83 (from top to bottom): xxmmxx/iStock/Getty Images; tanuha2001/iStock/Getty Images; SharonDay/iStock/ Getty Images; Ekaterina_Lin/iStock/Getty Images; Magone/iStock/Getty Images; KMNPhoto/iStock/Getty Images; Page 87: Mark Hatfield/Getty Images; Page 89: ©Drazen Lovric; Page 92: karma_pema/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Page 99 (clockwise from top): Kitty Ellis/ iStockphoto/Getty Images; SharonDay/iStock/Getty Images; Srdjan Stefanovic /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 112: © Human Kinetics; Page 114: Jordanlye/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 138: © Human Kinetics; Page 142: © Human Kinetics; Page 147 (from top to bottom): Yasonya/Getty Images/iStockphoto; loops7/ Getty Images; Magone/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; Dimitris66/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Page 151: Christine Glade/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Page 152: © Human Kinetics; Page 156 (clockwise from top): Creativeye99 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; DeeNida /iStockphoto/Getty Images; OLEKSANDR PEREPELYTSIA/iStockphoto/Getty Images; popovaphoto /iStockphoto/Getty Images; ValentynVolkov /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 159 (clockwise from top): bdspn /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Srdjan Stefanovic /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Dominik Pabis/Getty Images; gbh007 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 167 (clockwise from top): IgorDutina / iStockphoto/Getty Images; Srdjan Stefanovic /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; Srdjan Stefanovic /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Kaan Ates/ Getty Images; Srdjan Stefanovic /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 169 (clockwise from top): Lee Rogers/ iStockphoto/Getty Images; Selektor/Getty Images; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; getsaraporn/iStockphoto/ Getty Images; li jingwang/Getty Images; naran/iStockphoto/Getty Images; bhofack2 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Nell Redmond/iStockphoto/Getty Images; Carlos Gawronski/Getty Images; papkin/iStockphoto/ Getty Images; Page 173 (clockwise from top): Picsfive/ iStockphoto/Getty Images; Kateryna Maksimenko/ iStockphoto/Getty Images; popovaphoto/iStockphoto/ Getty Images; bhofack2 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; AlasdairJames/Getty Images; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; Page 174 (clockwise from top): Ekaterina_Lin/iStock/ Getty Images; Kaan Ates/iStockphoto/Getty Images; Antonio Scarpi/iStockphoto/Getty Images; IgorDutina /iStockphoto/Getty Images; ithinksky/iStockphoto/ Getty Images; milanfoto/Getty Images; Page 175: © Human Kinetics; Page 178: © Human Kinetics; Page 182 (from top to bottom): Praiwun /iStockphoto/ Getty Images; Creativeye99 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; bhofack2 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 183 (clockwise from top): © Human Kinetics; Creativeye99 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Ekaterina_Lin/iStock/Getty Images; Sjoerd van der Wal/Getty Images/iStockphoto; vitalssss/Getty Images/iStockphoto; margouillatphotos/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Maris Zemgalietis/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 185 (from top to bottom): nezabudka123/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; AlinaMD/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Carlos Gawronski/Getty Images; Page 187 (clockwise from top left): vikif/iStockphoto/Getty Images; Ekaterina_Lin/iStock/Getty Images; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; SharonDay/iStock/Getty Images; getsaraporn/iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 192: © Human Kinetics; Page 195 (clockwise from top left): Mizina/Getty Images/iStockphoto; vertmedia/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; Anna Pustynnikova/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Lauri Patterson/Getty Images; Page 204: © Human Kinetics; Page 220: © Human Kinetics; Page 223: © Human Kinetics; Page 226: © Human Kinetics; Page 235: ©Jupiterimages/Getty Images; Page 238: © Human Kinetics; Page 243: rudchenko/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 245: ©lzf/ iStockphoto/Getty Images; Page 253: © Human Kinetics; Page 254: GlobalStock/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 264: © Human Kinetics; Page 266: Courtesy of GE Healthcare; Page 267: © Human Kinetics; Page 270: © Human Kinetics; Page 274: monkeybusinessimages/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 284 (from top to bottom): xxmmxx/iStock/Getty Images; getsaraporn/iStockphoto/Getty Images; bhofack2/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Magone/iStock/Getty Images; Page 286: © Stephen Mally/Icon Sportswire; Page 290: © Human Kinetics; Page 303 (from top to bottom): gbh007 /iStockphoto/Getty Images; Carlos Gawronski/ Getty Images; Kaan Ates/Getty Images; ansonsaw/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; Magone/iStock/Getty ix x  Photo Credits Images; Page 306: PeopleImages/Getty Images; Page 310: ©pressmaster/fotolia.com; Page 328: ©Anton/ fotolia.com; Page 330: skynesher/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 333: © Human Kinetics; Page 339: © Human Kinetics; Page 357 (from left to right): Elena Schweitzer/Getty Images/iStockphoto; popovaphoto/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; AlinaMD/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; egal/Getty Images/iStockphoto; nezabudka123/Getty Images/iStockphoto; Page 358 (clockwise from left): Elena Schweitzer/Getty Images/iStock- photo; popovaphoto/Getty Images/iStockphoto; egal/ Getty Images/iStockphoto; AlinaMD/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; Page 360: ©Elenathewise/fotolia.com; Page 366 (from left to right): simonkr/Getty Images/ iStockphoto; © Human Kinetics; Page 367 (from left to right): simonkr/Getty Images/iStockphoto; © Human Kinetics; Page 475 (from left to right): Photo courtesy of Marie A. Spano; Photo courtesy of Tony Santo Photography PART I THE BIG PICTURE N utrition is a complex and vast science that covers the role of food, supplementation, and hydration for growth and development, metabolism, health, disease prevention, and sports performance. Looking at the big picture, nutrition needs change throughout the lifecycle. A nutrient-rich diet supplies the body with the macronutrients and micronutrients needed for optimal growth and development, health, and well-being throughout the lifecycle. Medical nutrition therapy, a subdiscipline within the field of nutrition, covers the nutrition needs for specific disease states and health conditions. Chapter 1 provides an overview of nutrition for health throughout the lifecycle, for disease states, and for athletic performance. In addition, food guidance systems intended for the general public are covered, as well as information on the research process and reliable sources of nutrition information. Following an overview of nutrition for health and wellbeing, chapter 2 explores energy metabolism. Before delving into the specific role of nutrition in exercise and athletic performance, you’ll learn about the different energy systems the body can use to generate fuel during various types of exercise at both high and low intensity. 1 \INSERT Photo E5541_ESY_025307240, CO 1, ID: 560375, here\ CHAPTER...
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  • Summer '17
  • Cheryl, Peters
  • Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration, Nutrition Facts Panel, RDA

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