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Unformatted text preview: 1 HIST 021 BOOK NOTES: CHAPTER 16 Give Me Liberty: An American History by: Eric Foner CHAPTER 16: AMERICAS GUILDED AGE 1870-1890- October 28, 1886: dedication of Liberty Enlightening the World o Edovard de Laboulgy: French educator o Symbol of American freedom post Civil War The Second Industrial Revolution- From Civil War to early 1900s: huge economic revolutions; causes: o Abundant natural resources o Growing supply of labor o Expanding market for manufactured goods o Availability of capital investment o Government promoted industrial and agricultural development enacted high tariffs, granted land to railroads, removed Indians with army force for farming and mining- The Industrial Economy o Increase in factory production (mining, railroads) signaled transition for Lincolns American to an industrial society o One can hardly believe there has been a revolution in history so rapid, so extensive, so complete. John Dewey o By 1880- Census Bureau found a majority of the workforce engaged in non-farming jobs o By 1890- 2/3 of Americans worked for wages rather than owning farm/business o By 1913- US produced 1/3 of the worlds industrial output o 1870-1920: 11 million Americans moved from farm to city and 25 million immigrated from other countries o New York- major industrial city, symbolized urban growth o Heartland of revolution was around Great Lakes (cities and factories producing iron and steel, machinery, chemicals and packaged foods)- Railroads and the National Market o Railroads fueled second industrial revolution: fueled by private investment, massive grants of land and government support. o Increased national market for manufactured goods o Standard National Gauge- trains from different companies to share one track (5 transcontinental lines by 1890s) o Increased population meant increased mass production, mass distribution and mass marketing of goods o Railroads spread of national chains and brand names- The Spirit of Innovation o 1866: Atlantic Cable- made electronic telegraph between US and Europe possible. o 1870-1880: telephone, typewriter and handheld camera o Thomas A. Edison- born in 1847 in Ohio; eras greatest inventor Established new industries, public entertainment Economic activity: phonograph, light bulb, motion picture, a system for generating and distributing electrical power. Opened first electrical generating station in Manhattan 1882 to benefit streetcars, factories and private homes; General Electric- Competition and Consolidation o Market flooded with goods and federal monetary policies led to fall in prices. 2 o 1873-1897: The Great Depression railroads and other companies tried various means of bringing order to marketplace formed pools that divided up the markets between competing firms and fixed prices established trusts- legal devices where by the affairs of several rival companies were managed by a single director....
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course HIST 021 taught by Professor Coohill during the Spring '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
- Spring '07
- History, Looking Backward, The Significance of the Frontier in American History