Running head: SUMMARY OF READINGS1Summary of ReadingsBhavana BangaruUniversity of the Cumberlands
SUMMARY OF READINGS2Summary of ReadingsChapter 15 of the textbook deals with leading, understanding, and transforming of theOrganization system. Organizational structure is defined as the way in which job tasks areformally divided, grouped and coordinated. The seven key elements that needs to be addressedwhen the organizational structure is designed are work specialization, departmentalization, chainof command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, formalization, and boundaryspanning. Work Specialization is the degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided intoseparate jobs. The key is to divide the job into number of tasks and each of that is to becompleted by a separate individual, who is specialized in the given area[CITATION Rob18 \p246 \l 1033 ]. Departmentalization is the basis by which jobs in an organization are groupedtogether. Functional, product or service, geographical, process and customer are the differenttypes of departmentalization. Chain of Command is defined as the unbroken line of authority thatextends from the top of the organization to the lowest and clarifies who reports to whom.Authority and unity of command are the key points to be discussed in chain of command.Authority is defined as the rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and to expectthe orders to be obeyed. This is the power that comes with the position, for example, manager,supervisor or any individual an employee reports directly to[CITATION Rob18 \p 248 \l 1033 ].Unity of command is the idea that a subordinate should have only one superior to whom they aredirectly responsible, this will help the employee to work productively without any conflict as towhom to report. Span of control is the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently andeffectively direct. The effectiveness in the management decreases when there are too manyemployees to look after[CITATION Rob18 \p 249 \l 1033 ]. Centralization refers to the degree towhich decision making is concentrated at a single point in an organization, the degree to which
SUMMARY OF READINGS3decision making is pushed down to the manager closest to the action is the decentralizationdecision making. Formalization is another key concept to be considered, which is the degree towhich jobs in an organization are standardized. Boundary spanning is when the individuals formrelationships outside their formally assigned groups[CITATION Rob18 \p 250-251 \l 1033 ].