notes14The Red River Settlement in 1869 contained about twelve thousand inhabitants. The English-speaking portion of the population consisted of heterogeneous groups without unity among them for any public purpose. Some were descendants or survivors of Lord Selkirk’s settlers who had come out half a century before; others were servants of the Hudson’s Bay Company, both retired and active; a third group were the Canadians; while a fourth was made up of a small though noisy body of Americans. Outnumbering the English, and united under leaders of their own race, the French and French half-breeds dwelt chiefly on the east bank of the Red River, south of Fort Garry. These half-breeds, or Metis, were a hardy race, who subsisted by hunting rather than by farming, and who were trained to the use of arms. They regarded with suspicion the threatened introduction of new political institutions, and were quite content under the paternal sway of the Hudson’s Bay Company and under the leadership of their spiritual advisers, Bishop Take and the priests of the Metis parishes.