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Lesson 4 - Lesson 4 On the Move American way of life has...

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Lesson 4 On the Move - American way of life has been transformed by the automobile - TRANSPORTAT ION IS IMPORTANT TO THE QUALITY OF OUR LIFE - Unfortunately, our transportation system is not very efficient, and contributes to some of the environmental challenges that we face - Transatlantic flight cross the "pond" in about 6 hours - Concord is able to fly faster than the speed of sound, which is an impressive 780 mph (miles per hour). Most passenger jets fly at around 300 to 500 mph. To do this they fly at high altitudes where the air is less dense. The lower resistance to the forward motion allows the plane to both fly faster and further. - Most boats will use diesel as a fuel. It has a number of advantages over gasoline, the most important of those being its higher energy content. The downside, however, is that Diesel has emission problems with particulate matter and NOx, and traditionally there have been few environmental controls to control emissions on the trucks and boats that use Diesel. Diesel also has a much higher energy content in a gallon than gasoline - Trains: diesel later replaced coal, and now in many locations, trains run off of electric. Gasoline Vehicles - Basics of the vehicle are that liquid fuel has the stored chemical energy that is released during the combustion process to power the car forward. - The lower the mpg the more gasoline is needed to cover the 14,000 miles the average American drives, the more pollution the vehicle will emit, the worse off the balance of trade and our dependence on imported crude oil - 8 out of every 10 people in the US own a vehicle. Car ownership is increasing as the industrialization of the developing world continues - In modern cars, having your foot on the accelerator doesn't mean you're actually accelerating - you could just be maintaining your speed, and working against the energy losses of friction and drag, which requires more energy (gas) just to maintain the same speed - Ke=1/2mv 2 - The heavier the vehicle (greater mass) the more energy is required to move the vehicle - Heat losses from the engine, air resistance, and rolling resistance between the tires and the road all contribute to our vehicles achieving only about a 28% efficiency. This means that only 28% of the total chemical energy supplied in
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