Lesson 6 - Lesson 6 Crude Oil Natural Gas Formation-As organic material decays methane is formed and lost into the atmosphere As the organic

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Lesson 6 Natural Gas Formation -As organic material decays, methane is formed and lost into the atmosphere. As the organic material breaks down, depending on the inputs (trees vs. plankton), the different fossil fuels will form -As the material is buried deeper the temperature increases and there is an "oil window", or an opportunity to find oil -If the temperature is too high then all the crude oil will form natural gas instead, and so the oil window closes -On death phytoplankton sink to the bottom of the ocean where the decay process occurs -Long time periods, millions of years - As the layers are buried deeper and deeper the temperature builds up (as does the pressure) and the layer turns into a rock. -Additional time, temperature and pressure and the maturation process produces kerogen. Additional time and the kerogen is transformed into bitumen and then crude oil with associated methane -Thus crude oil and gas "live" within porous rocks not great holes in the ground -If we find these structural traps and they contain oil or gas we can extract the fossil fuel and much of it will be combusted to generate thermal energy -We also find microfossils in the source rock that indicated that the inputs to the rock contained life. However the strongest indication is the identification of biomarkers within the crude oil -The Porphrin ring has an important role in biology. The nitrogen atoms are blue in color and there is a metal ion (in this case vanadium) in the center of the molecule. Metals such as vanadium, and nickel are present in oils at low levels but they are important contaminants -Vanadium can be recovered from the ash or flue gas when high vanadium
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course EGEE 101 taught by Professor Mathews,jonathan during the Fall '06 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Lesson 6 - Lesson 6 Crude Oil Natural Gas Formation-As organic material decays methane is formed and lost into the atmosphere As the organic

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