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Unformatted text preview: HIS 131 Review World War II o The Second World War, was a worldwide military conflict , the amalgamation of what had initially been two separate conflicts. The first began in Asia in 1937 as the Second Sino-Japanese War ; the other began in Europe in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland . This global conflict split the majority of the world's nations into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis Powers . Spanning much of the globe, World War II resulted in the death of over 70 million people , making it the deadliest conflict in human history . o World War II involved the mobilization of over 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history. The war placed the participants in a state of " total war ", erasing the distinction between civil and military resources. This resulted in the complete activation of a nation's economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities for the purposes of the war effort; nearly two-thirds of those killed in the war were civilians. Nearly 11 million of these civilian casualties were victims of the Holocaust-- which was conducted by Nazi Germany-- largely in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union . o The Allies were victorious, and as a result, the United States and Soviet Union emerged as the world's two leading superpowers . This set the stage for the Cold War , which lasted for the next 45 years. The United Nations was formed in hopes of preventing another such conflict. The self determination spawned by the war gave rise to decolonization movements in Asia and Africa, while Europe itself began moving toward integration Suburbia o While suburbs had originated far earlier, the suburban population in North America exploded after World War II. Returning veterans wishing to start a settled life moved en masse to the suburbs. Between 1950 and 1956 the resident population of all US suburbs increased by 46%. Levittown developed as a major prototype of mass-produced housing. During the same period of time, African- Americans were rapidly moving north for better jobs and educational opportunities than they could get in the segregated South, and their arrival in Northern cities en masse further stimulated white suburban migration, a phenomenon known as white flight. In the U.S., 1950 was the first year that more people lived in suburbs than elsewhere. o In the U.S, the development of the skyscraper and the sharp inflation of downtown real estate prices also led to downtowns being more fully dedicated to businesses, thus pushing residents outside the city centre. By 1980 this was often perceived as undesirable, extending travel times and adding to people's sense of isolation and fear in central areas outside trading hours. (before roughly 7AM and after roughly 6PM.) Hiroshima o At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of some industrial and military significance. A number of military camps were located nearby, including the headquarters of the Fifth Division...
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