Lecture 3 - 8-27 - Other Theorists

Lecture 3 - 8-27 - Other Theorists - OTHER THEORISTS...

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OTHER THEORISTS CHARLES DARWIN 1809 - 1882 Keen observer of children, detailed the record of growth and development in his own son, Doddy. Developed the theory of evolution where species change genetically over time because individuals possess characteristics that allow them to survive and procreate, thereby passing these characteristics on to future generations (natural selection and survival of the fittest). This led other biologists, in particular, Ernst Haeckel, to propose the principle of recapitulation: ONTOGENY RECAPITULATES PHYLOGENY – child development progresses in the same way that the species developed evolutionarily. Others attempted to apply Darwinism to societally accepted characteristics such as trustworthiness, sobriety, morality. This is illustrated in the movie, “The Lynchburg Colony”. G. STANLEY HALL 1846 – 1924 – “Founder of the field of developmental psychol- ogy”. Published the first systematic studies of children in U. S. Administered questionnaires to large populations of children, parents, and teachers, to determine precisely what sorts of everyday knowledge children of different ages possess. Established several child developmen journals. Was the first president of the American Psychological Association. Invited Freud to the United States. JOHN B. WATSON 1878-1958 First psychologist to apply Locke directly to human Behavior, creating the scientific school of “behaviorism.” Embraced Pavlov’s conditioned responses – thought that all be- havior could be reduced to unconditioned responses which have been generalized. Strict behaviorist who felt that all behavior was a function of the environment. "Give me any child and I will make him what you want - from ditch digger to President of the United States." OTHER NOTABLES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT CONTRIBUTOR CONTRIBUTION ALFRED BINET Developed the first intelligence and memory tests for the French school system. SRCD The Society for Research in Child Development grew to unite researchers from the universi- ties of Minnesota, Iowa, California Berkeley, Columbia, Toronto, in their efforts to study play, friendship patterns, fears, ag- gressions, conflicts. ARNOLD GESELL Used a photographic dome to observe systemat- ically the behavior of children without in- terrupting them - the first time direct observation instead of parental and teacher
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information used. Believed that many aspects of children's behaviors are biologically pro- grammed to occur as part of a maturational blueprint. He was strongly influenced by Darwin and felt that child development fol- lows a natural evolutionary course, with dis- tinct stages. JAMES MARK BALDWIN
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Lecture 3 - 8-27 - Other Theorists - OTHER THEORISTS...

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