HIST 2112 notes

HIST 2112 notes - August 21, 2007 1) Reconstruction...

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August 21, 2007 1) Reconstruction 1865-1877 a) The Civil War 1861-1865 i) The war between the states ii) The war of northern aggression iii) The freedom war iv) Conclusion- a lot at stake in defining the meaning and outcome of the war v) Different names because different names implied different meaning and causes of the war vi) Some of the conflicts have yet to be resolved b) What was reconstruction? i) Tragic imposition of ill-gotten power on a subject people ii) “carpetbaggers” iii) “scallywags” iv) “negro domination” v) Or, a tragically unfinished revolution? Too little done? vi) Or maybe redemption? When south could resume to rule c) Reconstruction as a struggle over the meaning of freedom i) Slavery was over but what would “freedom” look like? ii) 4 million former slaves, ½ million free-born African Americans iii) An unexpected challenge, what was going to be new economic order iv) W.E.B. DuBois- the problem of the “color line” was going to be the biggest challenge of the new century, 19 th d) A war for union i) 1861 Crittendon Resolution- specified purpose of the war, it was to win the war and save the union, nothing about slavery ii) Uncertain loyalty of slave states in the union e) A war for freedom i) Run away slaves ii) “largest slave rebellion in modern history”- some called the civil war because of slave involvement, their actions, and roles during the civil war iii) Challenge the myth that African Americans were happy as slaves f) Weakening slavery from within i) Slaves who stayed behind; work showdowns, all-out strikes, passing along information, helping run-away slaves g) Putting slaves to work- the gradual shift of federal policy i) Fall of 1862: Lincoln announces upcoming emancipation proclamation ii) January 1, 1863: the emancipation freed slaves in the states still in rebellion iii) Runaways and resistance was on the rise iv) Black men joined the union army v) Emancipation ensured that the border states would not succeed vi) April 1865: Lee surrenders vii)December 1865: ratification of the 13 th amendment to the constitution viii) With slavery ended the struggle over the meaning of freedom began ix) Who/what was a “freedman or woman”
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x) Black codes: designated African Americans as a different kind of people, instated voting rules xi) Struggles over land, land=economic independence xii)William T. Sherman, order number 15 (1865) “forty acres and a mule” xiii) Summer 1865: president Andrew Johnson resigns Sherman’s order no. 15 xiv) 1867: congress initiates new phase of reconstruction (“radical” or “congressional reconstruction”) h) Terms of congressional reconstruction i) Freedman’s bureau created ii) Ratification of the 14 th and 15 th amendment iii) Republican dominated governments established in southern states i) Signs of freedom i) Black voters elected officials ii) Black mobility iii) Family reunions: parents gain authority over children iv) Marriages v) Black institutions: churches, schools, ect…
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HIST 2112 notes - August 21, 2007 1) Reconstruction...

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