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Unformatted text preview: Imperialism 1) Early foundation a) Manifest destiny i) Gods will for US (Anglo-Saxons, Christians) to expand and spread Christianity and civilization b) Monroe Doctrine (1823) i) The Americas were in US sphere of influence, Europe keep out c) Mexican War (1848) d) Indian Wars 2) Late-nineteenth century developments a) Economic argumentsthe US needs access to markets and materials b) Global eventsEuropean colonialism c) Social Darwinism d) Racial conceptsAnglo-Saxon e) Religious argumentsmissionaries 3) Advocate of US imperialism a) Alfred Thayer Mahan b) US destiny to spread Western civilization to the Caribbean and across the pacific c) US must build up naval power to do so 4) Early developments a) Alaska i) 1867 purchased from Russia, potential access to lucrative Asian markets b) Hawaii i) 1870s and early 1880s ii) Annexation of Hawaii 1898 5) Resistance a) US revolutionary heritage i) US was born out of a revolution in response to colonial power 6) Road to war a) Sympathy for Cuban revolutionaries i) Rebelling against colonial rule of Spain b) The pressyellow journalismcirculation war between William Randolph Hearst and Joseph PulitzerSpanish Butchers c) Hearst: you furnish the pictures and Ill furnish the war d) Closing of the American frontier e) Manifest destiny, social Darwinism 7) President William McKinley a) 1897-1898: pressuring Spain to make reforms b) 1891: battleship Maine to Cuba c) February 15, 1898: explosion d) remember the Maine e) Final ultimatum: give Cuba independence f) Declaration of war 8) Progress of war a) US navy destroys Spanish fleet near the Philippines b) Spanish surrender on July 17 c) Teller Amendment (1898) i) War against Spain was not for expansion but for the good of humanity d) Albert Beveridge i) Filipinos were incapable of governing themselves simply because of their race, they were inferior ii) US was chosen nation 9) American style imperialismRoad to empire a) Puerto Rico becomes territory b) Cuba becomes protectorate c) Guam becomes naval station d) Filipino rebellionguerilla warfare e) Aguinaldo captured (1902) i) Filipino leader f) Colonial rule established i) Lasted until end of WWII WWI 1) Paradoxes a) war to end all wars b) War for democracy c) Brutality d) Ambiguous legacy for African Americans 2) War in Europe a) 1914 b) France, Russia, Great Britain, Japan vs. Germany, Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria, and Turkey i) Spark- AH heir to thrown assassinated by Serbian nationalist (1) AH declares war on Serbia (Russian) 3) US neutrality a) Geographic distance i) President Wilson urged neutrality b) Complexity of issues c) Which side? 4) Problems with neutrality a) Commercial interests harmed b) Submarine warfare c) Lusitania, May 15, 1915 d) he kept us out of a war 1916 i) Wilson got reelected on that platform e) Declaration of war, April 6. 1917 i) Very divided....
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