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Biology Review - Test 2

Biology Review - Test 2 - Photosynthesis Overview Reaction...

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Photosynthesis Overview Reaction o General : CO 2 + H 2 O + Sunlight Glucose + O 2 o Balanced Photosynthetic : 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O + Sunlight + Chlorophyll = 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O Occur on membranes of thylakoid disks in the chloroplasts Energy of sunlight passed from Antennae molecules of chlorophyll to an action site where Photsystem I, Photosystem II and Non-Cyclic Phosphorylation reations occur o O 2 obtained as a result of splitting water molecule o Biological basis for energy transfer Based on hydrogen and e-’s 2H 2 + O 2 = 2H 2 O + energy Reverse: 2H 2 O = 4e- (carrying energy) + 4H + + 2O - Light Dependent Reactions (Light Reactions) o 2H 2 O + 2ADP + P i +2NADP Sunlight (chlorophyll) 2ATP + 2NADPH + O 2 o Capture energy o Endergonic – requires energy (ADP + P i + energy C) o Water split to release e-’s (also H + ) and O 2 o Light energy used to excite e-’s o Some light energy used to make ATP by phosphorylation of ADP o e-’s excited a second time so they have enough energy to make NADPH > used in dark reactions w/ ATP to make glucose Photosystem I o Chlorophyll absorbs 700nm (P700) wavelengths o Chlorophyll excited by sunlight Energize two e-’s temporarily transferred to substance, X X – removes energy from e-’s so they can return to chlorophyll o Cyclic Phosphorylation When excited e-’s return to chlorophyll, some energy used to generate one molecule of ATP May be repeated multiple times Photosystem II o Chlorophyll absorbs 680 (P680) wavelengths o Cholorophyll energized to remove e-’s (hydrogens) from water Water split into hydrogen and oxygen o e-’s passed through series of carrier substances to Photosystem I Non-Cyclic Phosphorylation
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o Photosystem I and II are intact o Most e-’s not returned to original chlorophyll molecules and used for ATP production and NADP reduction Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions) o Use products of light reactions (ATP, NADPH) thus not needing direct light and don’t have to occur in dark o ATP and NADPH used to reduce CO 2 o Reduction of CO 2 results in formation of glucose o CO 2
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