Biology Review Test 1

Biology Review Test 1 - Biology Review Major...

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Biology Review Major Characteristics of Life: - highly organized o have cells > all cells have membranes - metabolism - production and use of energy o photosynthesis – (producers) 6CO 2 + H 2 O > Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) + O 2 chlorophyll sunlight all food is plant based o respiration – (consumers) reverse reaction of photosynthesis - growth and development - homeostatic > maintain a steady state of equilibrium o different from external environment o internal environment of an organism is constant - responsive > irritable to environment o respond to changes in the environment (e.g. birds migrating in response to climate) - reproduce o asexual (fission) or mitosis all cells genetically alike seen in growth, repair, and cell replacement o sexual (meiosis) cells w/ unique combinations of genetic material passed onto next generation - adapted o each organism evolved to meet demands/conditions of its environment - complex carbon molecules w/ common evolutionary history o code of life through DNA/RNA is universal o every animal is unique Scientific Method 1. Observations 2. Hypothesis (inductive reasoning) 3. Experiments 4. Results 5. Conclusion (hypothesis T or F > deductive reasoning) 6. Repeated experiments 7. Theory induction – formulation of a hypothesis from observations deduction – proving or disproving a hypothesis assumed to be correct
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Atom > smallest unit of element - element - cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means - 92 natural - elemental state – atoms unchanged, no chemical reactions - major elements of life - C, H, O, N - others: Na (natrium), Cl, K (kalmium), He, Ne, S - isotope – different molecular weights of same element due to different amount of neutrons in nucleus w/ same properties as element - atomic number – number of protons/electrons in element - atomic weight – protons + electrons - nucleus * central core w/ most mass of atom * overall + charge * protons, electrons, neutrons electron orbital – 2,8,8 o valence – number of electrons element must gain or lose to complete outermost shell o ions – atoms which are charged due to the loss or gain of electrons lose - + charge gain – - charge Chemical Bonds - Ionic o Complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another o Capture of electrons so strong it’s not a molecule
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Biology Review Test 1 - Biology Review Major...

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