ch03_odd - CHAPTER 3 MOLECULAR SHAPE AND STRUCTURE 3.1 (a)...

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CHAPTER 3 MOLECULAR SHAPE AND STRUCTURE 3.1 (a) The shape of the thionyl chloride molecule is trigonal pyramidal. (b) The O—S—Cl angles are identical. (c) The expected bond angle is slightly less than 109. 5 . ° 3.3 (a) bent, the electron pair on the central atom results in a trigonal planar arrangement . (b) The bond angle will be around 120 . ° 3.5 (a) angular or bent; (b) slightly less than 120 ° 3.7 (a) (b) (c) (d) SC IF F F F Xe O O O l Cl Cl Cl IC l Cl Cl (a) The sulfur atom will have five pairs of electrons about it: one nonbonding pair and four bonding pairs to chlorine atoms. The arrangement of electron pairs will be trigonal bipyramidal; the nonbonding pair of electrons will prefer to lie in an equatorial position, because in that location the e-e repulsions will be lowest. The actual structure is described as a seesaw. 4 AX E (b) Like the sulfur atom in (a), the iodine in iodine trichloride has five pairs of electrons about it, but here there are two lone pairs and three bonding pairs. The arrangement of electron pairs will be the same as in (a), and again the lone pairs will occupy the equatorial positions. Because the name of the molecule ignores the lone pairs, it will be classified as T- shaped. 32 AX E SM-82
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(c) There are six pairs of electrons about the central iodine atom in Of these, two are lone pairs and four are bonding pairs. The pairs will be placed about the central atom in an octahedral arrangement with the lone pairs opposite each other. This will minimize repulsions between them. The name given to the structure is square planar. 4 IF . 42 AX E (d) In determining the shape of a molecule, double bonds count the same as single bonds. The structure has four “objects” about the central Xe atom: three bonds and one lone pair. These will be placed in a tetrahedral arrangement. Because the lone pair is ignored in naming the molecule, it will be classified as trigonal pyramidal. 3 XeO 3 AX E 3.9 (a) The molecule is predicted to be linear, so the 3 I I < —I—I should equal 23 180 . AX E ° (b) The molecule is trigonal bipyramidal. There should be three Cl—Sb—Cl angles of 120 , and two of 5 SbCl ° 5 90 . AX ° (c) The structure of 4 IO will be tetrahedral, so the O—I—O bond angles should be 4 109.5 . AX ° (d) The structure of 2 NO is bent with a bond angle of around 2 120 . AX E ° 3.11 The Lewis structures are (a) (b) (c) d) CF Cl (a) The shape of is tetrahedral; all halogen—C—halogen angles should be approximately 3 CF Cl 4 109.5 . AX ; ° (b) molecules will be see saw shaped with Cl—Te—Cl ond angles of approximately 4 TeCl 4 90 and 120 . AX E; °° F F Te Cl Cl Cl Cl CO F F CH H H SM-83
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(c) molecules will be trigonal planar with F—C—F and O—C—F angles of 120 2 COF . ° 3 AX ; (d) ions will be trigonal pyramidal with H—C—H angles of slightly less than 3 CH 3 109.5 . AX E ° 3.13 (a) a and b are expected to be about 120 c is expected to be about in 2, 4-pentanedione. All of the angles are expected to be about in the acetylacetonate ion.
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course CHEM 211 taught by Professor Crane, b during the Fall '06 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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ch03_odd - CHAPTER 3 MOLECULAR SHAPE AND STRUCTURE 3.1 (a)...

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