FTC 121 Textbook.pdf - NSCA\u2019s Essentials of Tactical Strength and Conditioning Brent A Alvar PhD CSCS*D RSCC*D FNSCA Rocky Mountain University of

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Unformatted text preview: NSCA’s Essentials of Tactical Strength and Conditioning Brent A. Alvar, PhD, CSCS,*D, RSCC*D, FNSCA Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, Provo, UT Katie Sell, PhD, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD Editors Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Alvar, Brent A., editor. | Sell, Katie, editor. | Deuster, Patricia A., editor. | National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.), issuing body. Title: NSCA’s essentials of tactical strength and conditioning / Brent A. Alvar, Katie Sell, Patricia A. Deuster, editors. Other titles: National Strength and Conditioning Association’s essentials of tactical strength and conditioning | Essentials of tactical strength and conditioning Description: Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics, [2017] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016035892| ISBN 9781450457309 (print) | ISBN 9781492546146 (e-book) Subjects: | MESH: Physical Fitness | Resistance Training--methods | Emergency Responders | Military Personnel Classification: LCC RA781 | NLM QT 256 | DDC 613.7/1--dc23 LC record available at ISBN: 978-1-4504-5730-9 (print) Copyright © 2017 by the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Copyright claim excludes chapters 6, 8, 15, 19, 20, and 22, which are works of the U.S. Government. All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. The web addresses cited in this text were current as of September 2016, unless otherwise noted. Acquisitions Editor: Roger W. Earle; Senior Developmental Editor: Christine M. Drews; Managing Editor: Karla Walsh; Copyeditor: Alisha Jeddeloh; Indexer: Susan Danzi Hernandez; Permissions Manager: Dalene Reeder; Senior Graphic Designer: Joe Buck; Cover Designer: Keith Blomberg; Photographer (interior): Neil Bernstein, unless otherwise noted; photographs © Human Kinetics, unless otherwise noted; figure 17.9 © David Royal/The Monterey County Herald via AP; figure 17.10 © Shari L. Morris/age fotostock; figure 17.12 © David I. Gross/ZUMA Press; figure 18.1 © Oleg Zabielin/Dreamstime.com; figures 22.3 and 22.4 © Frank Palkoska; Photo Asset Manager: Laura Fitch; Visual Production Assistant: Joyce Brumfield; Photo Production Manager: Jason Allen; Art Manager: Kelly Hendren; Illustrations: © Human Kinetics, unless otherwise noted; Printer: Walsworth We thank the National Strength and Conditioning Association in Colorado Springs, Colorado, for assistance in providing the location for the photo shoot for this book. Study questions written by Shelby Williamson. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper in this book was manufactured using responsible forestry methods. Human Kinetics Website: United States: Human Kinetics P.O. Box 5076 Champaign, IL 61825-5076 800-747-4457 e-mail: [email protected] Australia: Human Kinetics 57A Price Avenue Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062 08 8372 0999 e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100 Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5 800-465-7301 (in Canada only) e-mail: [email protected] New Zealand: Human Kinetics P.O. Box 80 Mitcham Shopping Centre, South Australia 5062 0800 222 062 e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics 107 Bradford Road Stanningley Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom +44 (0) 113 255 5665 e-mail: [email protected] E5975 Contents Preface ix Chapter 1 Tactical Strength and Conditioning: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Brent A. Alvar, PhD, CSCS,*D, RSCC*D, FNSCA Katie Sell, PhD, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH, CNS NSCA TSAC Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Duties of a Tactical Athlete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Job Analysis of a Tactical Athlete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Assessment of the Individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Program Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Chapter 2 Cardiopulmonary and Endocrine Responses and Adaptations to Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Denise Smith, PhD Cardiovascular Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Pulmonary Anatomy and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Acute Respiratory Responses to Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Acute Endocrine Responses to Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Chronic Adaptations of the Cardiopulmonary and Endocrine Systems to Exercise and High-Stress Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Chapter 3 Skeletal Muscle Anatomy and Biomechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Michael R. Deschenes, PhD Raymond W. McCoy, PhD Bones and the Skeleton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Skeletal Muscle.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Muscle Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Neuromuscular Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Neural Responses During Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Biomechanical Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Types of Muscle-Strengthening Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Biomechanical Factors Affecting Muscle Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Chapter 4 Physiological Adaptations and Bioenergetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Todd Miller, PhD, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F, FNSCA Bioenergetics and Metabolism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Physiological Adaptations to Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Detraining and Retraining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 iii iv Contents Chapter 5 Basic Nutrition for Tactical Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Steve Hertzler, PhD, RD, LD Amanda Carlson-Phillips, MS, RD, CSSD Guidelines for Dispensing Nutrition Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Step 1: Understand the Demands of the Tactical Athlete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Step 2: Understand Basic Fueling Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Step 3: Provide Nutritional Guidance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Step 4: Create Nutritional Recommendations to Support Performance and Recovery. . . . . . .89 Providing Guidance on Energy Balance and Nutrition Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Chapter 6 Tactical Fueling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Maj. Nicholas D. Barringer, PhD, RD, CSCS,*D, CSSD Maj. Aaron P. Crombie, PhD, RD Nutritional Needs of Tactical Athletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Nutrient Requirements of Tactical Athletes Under Various Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Nutrition-Related Conditions and Chronic Diseases of Tactical Athletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Chapter 7 Ergogenic Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Abbie E. Smith-Ryan, PhD, CSCS,*D, FNSCA, FISSN Colin D. Wilborn, PhD, CSCS, ATC Eric T. Trexler, MA, CSCS Regulation of Dietary Supplements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Anti-Doping Agencies and Dietary Supplement Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Risk Stratification of Supplements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Common Performance-Enhancing Substances: Potential Benefits, Risks, and Side Effects. . .119 Illegal Performance-Enhancing Substances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 Signs and Symptoms of Ergogenic Aid Abuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Chapter 8 Testing and Evaluation of Tactical Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Maj. Bradley J. Warr, PhD, MPAS, CSCS Patrick Gagnon, MS Dennis E. Scofield, MEd, CSCS,*D Suzanne Jaenen, MS History of Fitness Testing in Tactical Occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Types of Performance Tests.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Testing Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Evaluation of Performance Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Use of Performance Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Chapter 9 Development of Resistance Training Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Nicholas A. Ratamess, PhD, CSCS,*D, FNSCA Needs Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Resistance Training Program Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Contents Chapter 10 Periodization for Tactical Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 G. Gregory Haff, PhD, CSCS,*D, FNSCA Defining Periodization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Goals of Periodization.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 Principles of Periodization Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 Structural Components of Periodized Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 Sequencing and Integrating Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 Applying Periodization Theory to Deployment-Based Tactical Athletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Applying Periodization Theory to Nondeployed Tactical Athletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Chapter 11 Resistance Training Exercise Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Jason Dudley, MS, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F, RSCC Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, FNSCA Performing Exercises With Alternative Implements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Warm-Up Before Resistance Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Guidelines on Body Stance and Alignment, Breathing, and Spotting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Chapter 12 Flexibility and Mobility Exercise Techniques and Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Mark Stephenson, MS, ATC, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F Daniel J. Dodd, PhD, CSCS Comparison of Mobility and Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Types of Flexibility and Mobility Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Exercise Technique and Cueing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Program Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302 Chapter 13 Plyometric, Speed, and Agility Exercise Techniques and Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Mike Barnes, MEd, CSCS, NSCA-CPT Jay Dawes, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, FNSCA Plyometric Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Speed Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342 Agility Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371 Chapter 14 Aerobic Endurance Exercise Techniques and Programming . . 393 Matthew R. Rhea, PhD, CSCS,*D Brent A. Alvar, PhD, CSCS,*D, RSCC*D, FNSCA Warming Up Before Aerobic Endurance Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Exercise Techniques and Cueing Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Step 1: Exercise Mode.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 Step 2: Training Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Step 3: Training Intensity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 Step 4: Exercise Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Step 5: Exercise Progression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Program Design Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 v vi Contents Chapter 15 Evidence-Based Approach to Strength and Power Training to Improve Performance in Tactical Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 Dennis E. Scofield, MEd, CSCS Sarah E. Sauers, MS, CSCS Barry A. Spiering, PhD, CSCS Marilyn A. Sharp, MS Bradley C. Nindl, PhD Overview of Occupational Demands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Optimizing Occupational Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423 Applying Principles of Strength and Power Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425 Chapter 16 Care and Rehabilitation of Injured Tactical Populations . . . . . 433 Danny McMillian, PT, DSc, OCS, CSCS, TSAC-F Common Injury Prevalence and Risk Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434 Phases of Tissue Healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435 Causes, Signs, and Symptoms of Overtraining Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437 Maintenance of Training Status During Rehabilitation and Reconditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . .438 Guidelines for Injury Care and Rehabilitation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451 Chapter 17 Physiological Issues Related to Fire and Rescue Personnel . . . 455 Katie Sell, PhD, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F,*D Mark Abel, PhD, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F,*D Joseph Domitrovich, PhD Critical Job Tasks for Firefighters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456 Environmental, Occupational, and Exposure Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461 Injury and Illness Risks in Firefighters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 Optimizing Functional Fitness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472 Program Design and Sample Training Approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Chapter 18 Physiological Issues Related to Law Enforcement Personnel . . 485 Ben Hinton, MSc, CSCS Sgt. Mick Sterli, BPhysEd, MExSc, CSCS,*D, TSAC-F,*D Robin Orr, PhD, MPhty, BFET, TSAC-F Critical Job Tasks for Law Enforcement Personnel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Environmental, Occupational, and Exposure Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Injury and Illness Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492 Optimizing Functional Fitness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492 Key Program Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501 Contents Chapter 19 Physiological Issues Related to Military Personnel . . . . . . . . . . 505 William Kraemer, PhD, CSCS,*D, FNSCA LTC David Feltwell, PT, OCS, TSAC-F Tunde Szivak, PhD, CSCS Critical Job Tasks for Conventional Military and Special Operations Personnel. . . . . . . . . . 506 Environmental, Occupational, and Exposure Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Injury and Illness Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 Optimizing Functional Fitness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Program Design and Sample Training Approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Chapter 20 Physical Training to Optimize Load Carriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Paul C. Henning, PhD, CSCS Barry A. Spiering, PhD, CSCS Dennis E. Scofield, MEd, CSCS Bradley C. Nindl, PhD Impact of Equipment Load on Biomechanical Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536 Physiological and Biomechanical Demands of Load Carriage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Practical Considerations for Training Programs to Optimize Load Carriage. . . . . . . . . . . . . .542 Chapter 21 Wellness Interventions in Tactical Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 Robin Orr, PhD, MPhty, BFET, TSAC-F John R. Bennett, MS, CSCS, EMT-P Chronic Illnesses and Diseases Common in Tactical Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552 Risk Factors Requiring Wellness Interventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554 Operating Wellness Programs for Tactical Populations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558 Chapter 22 Organization and Administration Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 563 John Hofman, Jr, MS, CSCS Frank A. Palkoska, MS, CSCS Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Layout and Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573 Policies and Procedures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575 Safe Training Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
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