EXAM 2 review sheet - EXAM 2 REVIEW SHEET CHAPTER 7...

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EXAM 2 REVIEW SHEET CHAPTER 7- CONSCIOUSNESS Consciousness- our awareness of ourselves and our environments - Biological Rhythms: periodic physiological fluctuations - Circadian Rhythms: the biological clock, regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as a wakefulness and body temperature. Influences when you can perform at your peak REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep - Reoccurring sleep stage in which you have vivid dreams - “Paradoxical sleep”: muscles are generally relaxed but other body systems are active (brain activity, respiration etc) 5 Stages of Sleep Cycle 1. Stage 1 Sleep: slow breathing and irregular brain waves. Light sleep. You may experience hallucinations or a sensation of falling. 2. Stage 2 Sleep: characterized by periodic sleep spindles (bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity. 3. Stage 3 Sleep: the few minutes of delta waves becoming slower and larger 4. Stage 4 Sleep: slow wave sleep stage, through which you are hardest to awaken. Deep sleep 5. REM Sleep- brain waves become rapid and saw-toothed. Heart rate rises and breathing becomes rapid and irregular, eyes dart from activity. Genitals aroused, muscles very relaxed, near paralysis. Best hours of sleep is 9-10 hours Sleep Disorders - Insomnia: persistent problems in falling or staying asleep - Narcolepsy: uncontrollable sleep attacks at most random times (ex: after talking) - Sleep Apnea: temporary cessation of breathing, momentary reawakening Hypnosis: a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. - Posthypnotic Amnesia: supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis. Induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion. PROBLEMS: unhypnotized persons can also do this. - Posthypnotic Suggestion: suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized. Used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors. Psychoactive drug: alters perceptions and mood - Depressants o Drug that reduce neural activity; slow body functions o Alcohol, barbiturates, opiates Barbiturate Drug that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment Opiates Opium and its derivatives (morphine, heroine) Opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety - Stimulants o Drugs that excite neural activity o Speeds up body functions (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines)
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Cocaine Prevents reuptake of neurotransmitter; blocks receptor site 15-20 minutes good time, hours of depression and paranoia Amphetamines Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speed up body functions and associated with energy and mood changes
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