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Radiation.docx - ARTICLE 1 - WHO Forms of Electromagnetic...

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ARTICLE 1 - WHO Forms of Electromagnetic Radiation - WAVES and PARTICLESIonizing Radiation = Radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from the orbit of an atom, causing the atom to become charge or ionizedTypes of EM RadiationHeat WavesRadiowavesInfrared lightVisible lightUV lightX raysGamma raysLong wave length/lower frequency = less energy (heat/radio)Short wavelength/HIGH frequency = MORE energy (xray/gamma rays)ONLY xrays/gamma rays are IONIZING(comes in waves OR particulates)TWO FORMS OF IONIZING RADIATION:1) Waves = Visible light, radio waves--> “wave like” behavior in their interaction with matter (diffraction patterns, transmission, detection of radio signals). EM rad is a wave packet called a PHOTON2) Particulate is IONIZING RADIATION= consists of atomic or subatomic particles (electrons, protons, neutrons) that carry energy in the form of Kinetic Energy (mass in motion)Alpha/Beta Particles= DIRECTLY ionizing; carry a charge and can interact directly with atomic electrons through coulombic forcesNeutron = INDIRECTLY ionizing; DOES NOT carry an electrical chargeGamma/Xrays = Electronmagnetic, INDIRECTLY ionizing radiation;does not carry electrical charge/neutralArticle 2 - WHO - ISOTOPES and ACTIVITY Atoms in normal state = electrically neutral; total negative charge of electrons outside nucleus equals total positive charge of the nucleusIsotopes = Atoms with SAME number of PROTONSbut DIFFERENT number of neutronsMay be defined as one or two or more forms of the same element having the SAME atomic number (Z), differing mass numbers (A), andSAME chemical propertiesSimplest atom = Hydrogen = one electron orbiting a nucleus on one protonHydrogen 2 = DeuteriumHydrogen 3 = Tritium = RADIOACTIVE All three have identical chemical properties but different nuclear properties
Radioisotope activity = measure of how many atoms undergo radioactive decay per a unit of timeSI unitfor measuring the rate of nuclear transformationsis the becquerel (Bq)= defined as 1 radioactive disintegration per secondOId unit was the Curie (Ci) = activity of 1 gram of radium-226 (3.7 x 1010 radioactive disintegrations per second)Article 3 - WHO - DOSE and SOURCEDOSE= Only amount of energy of any type of ionizing radiation ABSORBED by human body can cause harm

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Term
Spring
Professor
sessay
Tags
Proton, Ionizing radiation, Gamma ray, Chernobyl disaster, em radiation, Alpha

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