Medieval Times ● Thought by most people to be a time of dark ages and backward thinking, but people of the time thought of themselves as advanced and sophisticated. ● Important Dates ○ 1066 Duke of Normandy invades England ○ 1095 Crusades start ○ 1150 first mass paper production ○ 1170 Thomas a Becket murdered ○ 1215 Magna Carta signed ○ 1348 Plague hits England ○ 1375 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is written ○ 1387 Chaucer begins the Canterbury Tales ○ 1455 Gutenberg prints first book using movable type ○ 1475 First book printed in English William the Conqueror ● Defeated the last Ango-Saxon King (King Harold) ● He commissioned the Doomsday Book and taxed people on what they owned ● He brought feudalism Feudalism ● Brought taxation to the people based on their land ● Had a code of conduct and manners (knighthood developed from this part of feudalism) ● Women had no rights and no voice in the system Knights ● Men were expected to provide military service to their lords ● The Code of Chivalry emerged ○ An oath of loyalty ○ A fearless fighter ○ Observe rules of warfare ○ Courtly love The Black Death ● Lead to enormous political and social changes ○ Freed the serfs’ ○ Ended feudalism Medieval Literature ● Most literature was still written in Latin ● Literary Forms ○ During the Middle Ages four literary forms were dominant ■ Epic: centered around one heroic figure whose actions affect the well-being of an entire group
■ Romances ■ Allegories- ■ Ballads- Ballads ● A song or songlike poem that tells a story and contain a regular rhythm and rhyme and generally contain a refrain Kinds of Ballads ● Folk ballad- anonymous singers pass down ballads orally from generation to generation ● Literary ballad-written by an established poet and recorded in writing but styled after Folk Ballads “Edward, Edward” ● Recorded by Sir Thomas Percy ● International Ballad ● Also a conversational Ballad between a mom and her son “Get Up and Bar the Door” ● The battle of the sexes ○ Man vs wife ● Who is the most stubborn? ● Neither the man nor the woman wants to get up and shut and lock the door.
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