ConceptsBiology-OP.pdf - Concepts of Biology SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS SAMANTHA FOWLER CLAYTON STATE UNIVERSITY REBECCA ROUSH SANDHILLS COMMUNITY

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Unformatted text preview: Concepts of Biology SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS SAMANTHA FOWLER, CLAYTON STATE UNIVERSITY REBECCA ROUSH, SANDHILLS COMMUNITY COLLEGE JAMES WISE, HAMPTON UNIVERSITY OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit . Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. ©2017 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). 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For questions regarding this licensing, please contact [email protected] Trademarks The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, OpenStax CNX logo, OpenStax Tutor name, Openstax Tutor logo, Connexions name, Connexions logo, Rice University name, and Rice University logo are not subject to the license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. PRINT BOOK ISBN-10 PRINT BOOK ISBN-13 PDF VERSION ISBN-10 PDF VERSION ISBN-13 ENHANCED TEXTBOOK ISBN-10 ENHANCED TEXTBOOK ISBN-13 Revision Number Original Publication Year 1-938168-11-9 978-1-938168-11-6 1-947172-03-4 978-1-947172-03-6 1-938168-22-4 978-1-938168-22-2 CB-2013-005(03/16)-RS 2013 OPENSTAX OpenStax provides free, peer-reviewed, openly licensed textbooks for introductory college and Advanced Placement® courses and low-cost, personalized courseware that helps students learn. 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Accordingly, he established the Calvin K. Kazanjian Economics Foundation Inc, in 1949 as a philanthropic, nonpolitical educational organization to support efforts that enhanced economic understanding. Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, it focuses on improving people’s health with vaccines and other life-saving tools and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In the United States, it seeks to significantly improve education so that all young people have the opportunity to reach their full potential. Based in Seattle, Washington, the foundation is led by CEO Jeff Raikes and Co-chair William H. Gates Sr., under the direction of Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. The Maxfield Foundation supports projects with potential for high impact in science, education, sustainability, and other areas of social importance. Our mission at The Michelson 20MM Foundation is to grow access and success by eliminating unnecessary hurdles to affordability. We support the creation, sharing, and proliferation of more effective, more affordable educational content by leveraging disruptive technologies, open educational resources, and new models for collaboration between for-profit, nonprofit, and public entities. The Bill and Stephanie Sick Fund supports innovative projects in the areas of Education, Art, Science and Engineering. new school year. new classes. new books. free books. new assignments. free app. new app. OpenStax + SE Get free textbooks for over 30 college courses in the free OpenStax + SE app. Download it now on the App Store or get it on Google Play. Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 1. The Cellular Foundation of Life Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The Process of Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Biological Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . 3.1 How Cells Are Studied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells . . . 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 The Cell Membrane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Passive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Active Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4: How Cells Obtain Energy . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Energy and Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Glycolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation . 4.4 Fermentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways . . . . Chapter 5: Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis 5.3 The Calvin Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 2. Cell Division and Genetics Chapter 6: Reproduction at the Cellular Level . . . . . . 6.1 The Genome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 The Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7: The Cellular Basis of Inheritance . . . . . . . 7.1 Sexual Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Errors in Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8: Patterns of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Laws of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance . . . . . . Unit 3. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Chapter 9: Molecular Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 The Structure of DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 DNA Replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Biotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering . . . . . . . . 10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture . . . 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 4. Evolution and the Diversity of Life Chapter 11: Evolution and Its Processes . . . . . . . . 11.1 Discovering How Populations Change . . . . . . 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Evidence of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Speciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . 5 16 27 28 34 39 55 55 59 61 74 77 81 91 92 102 104 107 111 117 117 122 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 135 137 143 145 153 153 157 163 173 174 178 185 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 200 204 210 213 216 225 225 232 236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 250 255 258 261 11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution . . . Chapter 12: Diversity of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships . . . . Chapter 13: Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Protists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Fungi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14: Diversity of Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 The Plant Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Seedless Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Diversity of Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom . . . . . . . . 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods . . . . 15.4 Mollusks and Annelids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates . . . . . . . . . . 15.6 Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 5. Animal Structure and Function Chapter 16: The Body’s Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation . . . . . . . 16.2 Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems . . . . . 16.4 Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Musculoskeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6 Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 17: The Immune System and Disease . . . . 17.1 Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Innate Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 Adaptive Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System . . . . . . Chapter 18: Animal Reproduction and Development . 18.1 How Animals Reproduce . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Development and Organogenesis . . . . . . . 18.3 Human Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit 6. Ecology Chapter 19: Population and Community Ecology . . . 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics . . . 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation . . . . . . 19.3 The Human Population . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4 Community Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 20: Ecosystems and the Biosphere . . . . . . 20.1 Energy Flow through Ecosystems . . . . . . . 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 21: Conservation and Biodiversity . . . . . . 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A: The Periodic Table of Elements . . . . . . . . Appendix B: Geological Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix C: Measurements and the Metric System . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This OpenStax book is available for free at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 275 275 280 291 292 302 304 311 325 326 332 338 343 355 356 361 367 374 380 385 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 404 408 414 420 426 431 449 450 456 459 468 477 478 482 484 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 500 504 510 514 529 530 537 547 554 567 568 575 582 593 595 597 605 Preface 1 PREFACE Welcome to Concepts of Biology, an OpenStax resource. This textbook has been created with several goals in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging students toward high levels of academic scholarship. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong introduction to biology in an accessible format. About OpenStax OpenStax is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of today’s college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax is working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations. About OpenStax's Resources OpenStax resources provide quality academic instruction. Three key features set our materials apart from others: they can be customized by instructors for each class, they are a “living” resource that grows online through contributions from science educators, and they are available free or for minimal cost. Customization OpenStax learning resources are designed to be customized for each course. Our textbooks provide a solid foundation on which instructors can build, and our resources are conceived and written with flexibility in mind. Instructors can select the sections most relevant to their curricula and create a textbook that speaks directly to the needs of their classes and student body. Teachers are encouraged to expand on existing examples by adding unique context via geographically localized applications and topical connections. Concepts of Biology can be easily customized using our online platform. Simply select the content most relevant to your syllabus and create a textbook that speaks directly to the needs of your class. Concepts of Biology is organized as a collection of sections that can be rearranged, modified, and enhanced through localized examples or to incorporate a specific theme of your course. This customization feature will help bring biology to life for your students and will ensure that your textbook truly reflects the goals of your course. Curation To broaden access and encourage community curation, Concepts of Biology is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license. The scientific community is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current and relevant for today’s students. You can submit your suggestions to [email protected] Cost Our textbooks are available for free online, and in low-cost print and e-book editions. About Concepts of Biology Concepts of Biology is designed for the single-semester introduction to biology course for non-science majors, which for many students is their only college-level scien...
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