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Unformatted text preview: f~i.. ~'lA 'J ~.' ,ncv",,::.:> vr LlCCLVrl'II:I\l1 takes the rather indirect farm af assigning to. the ather, nan-ecanamic levels, their place in a hierarchy af daminance with respect to. ane ,anather, and the kind af articulatian between them" (Bentan 1984: 72). In structural Marxism, revalutianary change, fram ane made af praduc- tian to. anather, accurred thraugh a "candensatian" ar "fusian" af sev- eral cantradictians accurring at different levels in a sacial structure-far example, simultaneausly material and idealagical. Structural change was a camplex pracess in which daminance might be displaced fram ane instance to. anather-far example, fram the palitical to. the ecanamic instance during the transitian fram feudalism to. capitalism (Taylar 1979), ar fram the state to. the mass media in advanced capitalism. In this canceptian, each made af praductian had a characteristic structure, typical camplexes af cantradictions, and a dynamic, ar system af caurses af develapment. A central tendency in a made was caunterbalanced by ather tendencies to. praduce the camplex rhythms af sacial change that typified any epach. Each made af productian cantained several diver- gent develapmental t~ndencies in dynamic tensian, and several modes af praductian were present in an actually existing saciety, ar "sacial farma- tian" (Althusser 1969; Althusser and Balibar 1970). Structural Marxism had significant implicatians far develapment. Mades af praductian, characterized mast basically by their sacial rela- tians, entailed different capacities far the develapment af the praductive farces. But sacial farmatians were farmed by the articulatian af several mades, so. that the ecanamic dynamic af a specific .saciety had several, aften canflicting, develaping and underdevelaping tendencies, aften lacated in different regians within a saciety (i.e., geagraphically uneven develap~erit). ~)JrplJ,!,~,)y,.~2,..,.~;?flr~Jx,4",kr,,!!!~tes within a given sacial formatian, and was transferred across space between farmatians, accarding to. principles af hierarchy and daminatian that were bath sacial and geapalitical. Spatial systems af surplus extractian were pra- tected and expanded by state actian-far example, iillJ2erialism and calanialism-and spatial inequalities were legitimized byidealagies-far examp1~he natian af "white man's burden." Structural Marxism affered a pawerful, camplex way af understanding intersacietal rela- tians. Imperialism Fram the Marxist perspective, capitalism was a sacial farm af develap- ment based an the extractian af surplus fram warkers: extractian might be internal to. a sacial farmatian, ar it might be external, between saciet- ies. Marxist thearies af imperialism loaked at saciety's external ar spa- 1'!CirXISL iina l\lea-I'larxISl: Ineones or LJevelopmen( IU::J tial relatians. Lasting fram the fifteenth to. the nineteenth centuries in Eurape, mercantilist farms af imperialism invalved the plundering af ancient stackpiles af wealth fram precapitalist...
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course GEOG 128 taught by Professor Ipsitachatterjee during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
- Spring '08