Russel_-_Entry_on_Marx

Russel_-_Entry_on_Marx - ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~. ~. ....

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~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~. ~. .~C~~;"c.".-'", ~,".' ~ ~_. ~. ~ ~ _.~_.~ .- .~n_~ ~~ .~ ~ . ~ . ~~~I!>. o.Ji. ~ rJ -tt. .. W<.t~- ~ 1M ~ Karl Marx (1818-83), pupil of Hegel, social theorist, revolutionary Friedrich Engels (1820-95) 270 The town of Treves, on the Moselle river, has in the course of its history been peculiarly productive of saints. For it is the birthplace not only of Ambrose, but also of Karl Marx (1818-83). As sainthood goes, Marx was undoubtedly the more successful of the two, and it is just that this should be so. For he is the founder of the movement that sanctified him, whereas his fellow townsman and saintly colleague was but a latter-day adherent of his own creed. Marx came from a Jewish family which had turned protestant. During his university da.ys he was strongly influenced by the Hegelianism then in vogue. His work as a journalist came to an abrupt end when the Prussian authorities banned the 'Rheinische Zeitung'in 1843. Marx then went to France and became acquainted with the leading French socialists. In Paris he met Friedrich Engels, whose father owned factories in Germany and at Manchester. Engels managed the latter, and was thus able to introduce Marx to the problems of labour and industry in England. On the eve of the revolution of 1848, Marx published the Communist Manifesto. He was actively involved in the revolution both in France and Germany. In 1849, the Prussian government sent him into exile, and he took refuge in London. There he remained, except for some brief trips to his homeland, until the end of his life. In the main it was through help from Engels that Marx and his family subsisted. But in spite of poverty, Marx studied arid wrote with zeal, paving the way for the social revolution he felt imminent. Marx's thinking was moulded by three major influences. There is first of all his connection with the Philosophic Radicals. Like them, he is opposed to romanticism and pursues a social theory which claims to be scientific. From Ricardo he adopted the labour theory of value,though he gave a different twist to it. Ricardo and Malthus had argued from a tacit assumption that the existing social order was immutable; tree competition therefore keeps wages for labour at subsistence level, and so contIols numbers. Marx, on the other hand, takes the point of view of the worker whose labour is used by the capitalist employer. A man produces value in excess of his remuneration, and this surplus value is drained off by the capitalist for his own benefit. In this way, labour is exploited. But this is not really a personal matter. For it requires the concurrence of large numbers of men and quantities of equipment to produce goods on an industrial scale. The exploitation is therefore to be understood in terms of a system of production, and the relations to it of the working class and the capitalist class as a whole. ThiS brings
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Russel_-_Entry_on_Marx - ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~. ~. ....

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