[Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications] Babak Akhgar, P. Saskia Bayerl, Frase - Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security

[Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications] Babak Akhgar, P. Saskia Bayerl, Frase

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Unformatted text preview: Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications Babak Akhgar P. Saskia Bayerl Fraser Sampson Editors Open Source Intelligence Investigation From Strategy to Implementation Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications Series editor Anthony J. Masys, Centre for Security Science, Ottawa, ON, Canada Advisory Board Gisela Bichler, California State University, San Bernardino, CA, USA Thirimachos Bourlai, Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, Morgantown, WV, USA Chris Johnson, University of Glasgow, UK Panagiotis Karampelas, Hellenic Air Force Academy, Attica, Greece Christian Leuprecht, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada Edward C. Morse, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA David Skillicorn, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada Yoshiki Yamagata, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan The series Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications comprises interdisciplinary research covering the theory, foundations and domain-specific topics pertaining to security. Publications within the series are peer-reviewed monographs and edited works in the areas of: – biological and chemical threat recognition and detection (e.g., biosensors, aerosols, forensics) – crisis and disaster management – terrorism – cyber security and secure information systems (e.g., encryption, optical and photonic systems) – traditional and non-traditional security – energy, food and resource security – economic security and securitization (including associated infrastructures) – transnational crime – human security and health security – social, political and psychological aspects of security – recognition and identification (e.g., optical imaging, biometrics, authentication and verification) – smart surveillance systems – applications of theoretical frameworks and methodologies (e.g., grounded theory, complexity, network sciences, modelling and simulation) Together, the high-quality contributions to this series provide a cross-disciplinary overview of forefront research endeavours aiming to make the world a safer place. The editors encourage prospective authors to correspond with them in advance of submitting a manuscript. Submission of manuscripts should be made to the Editor-in-Chief or one of the Editors. More information about this series at Babak Akhgar P. Saskia Bayerl Fraser Sampson • Editors Open Source Intelligence Investigation From Strategy to Implementation 123 Editors Babak Akhgar School of Computing and Management Sciences Sheffield Hallam University Sheffield UK Fraser Sampson Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire Wakefield UK P. Saskia Bayerl Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University Rotterdam The Netherlands ISSN 1613-5113 ISSN 2363-9466 (electronic) Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications ISBN 978-3-319-47670-4 ISBN 978-3-319-47671-1 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-47671-1 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016955064 © Springer International Publishing AG 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer International Publishing AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Preface It is our great privilege to welcome you to our book Open Source Intelligence— From Strategy to Implementation. In this collection, we offer an authoritative and accessible guide on how to conduct open-source intelligence (OSINT) investigations from data collection to analysis to the design and vetting of OSINT tools. It further highlights the broad range of challenges and complexities faced by law enforcement and other security agencies utilizing OSINT to increase our communities’ security as well as to combat terrorism and organized crime. One of the most important aspects for a successful police operation is the ability for the police to obtain timely, reliable, and actionable intelligence related to the investigation or incident at hand. OSINT provides an invaluable avenue to access and collect such information in addition to traditional investigative techniques and information sources. Examples of OSINT covered in this volume range from information posted on social media as one of the most openly available means of accessing and gathering open-source intelligence to location data, OSINT obtained from the darkweb to combinations of OSINT with real-time analytical capabilities and closed sources. And while OSINT by its nature is not generally gathered as ‘evidence’, it can be powerful when deployed in proceedings against criminals. The book therefore concludes with some consideration of the legal and procedural issues that will need to be addressed if OSINT is to be used in this way. This book thus provides readers with an in-depth understanding to OSINT from a theoretical, practical, and legal perspective. It describes strategies for the design and deployment of OSINT for LEAs as well as other entities needing to capitalize on open-source data. The book offers a wide range of case examples and application scenarios from LEAs to defense and security agencies to industry, as well as hands-on guidance on the OSINT investigation process. The book outlines methods and illustrates benefits and challenges using real-life cases and (best) practices used by LEAs, security agencies, as well as industry. Another important aspect is the inclusion of legal and ethical considerations in the planning and conducting of OSINT investigations. We would like to take the opportunity to recognize the work of our contributors to allow us to draw upon their expertise for this book—a process that has enabled us v vi Preface to highlight many of the important aspects of OSINT-related needs and requirements of LEAs and other security actors within its chapters. This interdisciplinary approach has helped us to bring together a wide range of domain knowledge from law enforcement, academia and industry to present our readers with an operational focused aspect of OSINT-based investigations and related strategic narratives from planning to deployment. We hope that this book will serve as a compendium for practitioners, academics, teachers, and students for state-of-the art knowledge ranging from conceptual considerations to hands-on practical information to legal and ethical guidance. Sheffield, UK Rotterdam, The Netherlands Wakefield, UK Babak Akhgar P. Saskia Bayerl Fraser Sampson Acknowledgements The editors wish to thank the multidisciplinary team of experts who have contributed to this book, sharing their knowledge, experience, and latest research. Our gratitude is also extended to the following organizations and projects: – CENTRIC (Centre of Excellence in Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence and Organised Crime Research), UK – Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Netherland – Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH-ITI), Thessaloniki, Greece – National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary – National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Computer Science and Control, Hungary – Hungarian Competition Authority – Police Services of Northern Ireland – Home Office CAST, UK – Serco Plc. – EU-FP7 Project ATHENA (313220) – EU-H2020 Project TENSOR (700024) – EU-FP7 Project HOMER (312388) – DG Home Project UNIFC2 (HOME/2013/ISEC/AG/INT/4000005215) vii Contents Part I Introduction 3 1 OSINT as an Integral Part of the National Security Apparatus . . . . . Babak Akhgar 2 Open Source Intelligence and the Protection of National Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrew Staniforth 11 Police Use of Open Source Intelligence: The Longer Arm of Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrew Staniforth 21 3 4 OSINT as Part of the Strategic National Security Landscape . . . . . Laurence Marzell 5 Taking Stock of Subjective Narratives Surrounding Modern OSINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Douglas Wells Part II 6 33 57 Methods, Tools and Techiques Acquisition and Preparation of Data for OSINT Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helen Gibson 69 95 7 Analysis, Interpretation and Validation of Open Source Data . . . . . Helen Gibson, Steve Ramwell and Tony Day 8 OSINT and the Dark Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 George Kalpakis, Theodora Tsikrika, Neil Cunningham, Christos Iliou, Stefanos Vrochidis, Jonathan Middleton and Ioannis Kompatsiaris ix x Contents 9 Fusion of OSINT and Non-OSINT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Tony Day, Helen Gibson and Steve Ramwell 10 Tools for OSINT-Based Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Quentin Revell, Tom Smith and Robert Stacey 11 Fluidity and Rigour: Addressing the Design Considerations for OSINT Tools and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 B.L. William Wong Part III Pratical Application and Cases 12 A New Age of Open Source Investigation: International Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Eliot Higgins 13 Use Cases and Best Practices for LEAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Steve Ramwell, Tony Day and Helen Gibson 14 OSINT in the Context of Cyber-Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Fahimeh Tabatabaei and Douglas Wells 15 Combatting Cybercrime and Sexual Exploitation of Children: An Open Source Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Elisavet Charalambous, Dimitrios Kavallieros, Ben Brewster, George Leventakis, Nikolaos Koutras and George Papalexandratos 16 Identifying Illegal Cartel Activities from Open Sources . . . . . . . . . . 251 Pál Vadász, András Benczúr, Géza Füzesi and Sándor Munk Part IV Legal Considerations 17 Legal Considerations for Using Open Source Intelligence in the Context of Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Alison Lyle 18 Following the Breadcrumbs: Using Open Source Intelligence as Evidence in Criminal Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Fraser Sampson Editors and Contributors About the Editors Babak Akhgar is Professor of Informatics and Director of Center of Excellence in Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence and Organised Crime Research (CENTRIC) at Sheffield Hallam University (UK) and Fellow of the British Computer Society. He has more than 100 refereed publications in international journals and conferences on strategic information systems with aspecific focus on knowledge management (KM) and intelligence management. He is member of editorial boards of several international journals and has acted as Chair and Program Committee Member for numerous international conferences. He has extensive and hands-on experience in the development, management, and execution of KM projects and large international security initiatives (e.g., the application of social media in crisis management, intelligence-based combating of terrorism and organized crime, gun crime, cyber-crime and cyber-terrorism, and cross cultural ideology polarization). In addition to this, he acts as technical lead in EU Security projects (e.g., “Courage” on Cyber-Crime and Cyber-Terrorism and “Athena” on the Application of Social Media and Mobile Devices in Crisis Management). Currently, he is the technical lead on EU H2020-project TENSOR on dark web. He has co-edited several books on Intelligence Management. His recent books are titled Strategic Intelligence Management (National Security Imperatives and Information and Communications Technologies), Knowledge Driven Frameworks for Combating Terrorism and Organised Crime, Emerging Trends in ICT Security, and Application of Big Data for National Security. Professor Akhgar is a board member of the European Organisation for Security and member of the academic advisory board of SAS UK. xi xii Editors and Contributors P. Saskia Bayerl is Associate Dean of Diversity and Associate Professor of Technology and Organizational Behavior at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, the Netherlands. She further is Co-Director of the Centre of Excellence in Public Safety Management (CESAM, Erasmus University) and Visiting Research Fellow at CENTRIC (Center of Excellence in Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence and Organised Crime Research, Sheffield Hallam University, UK). She is a regular speaker at police and security conferences and workshops and member of advisory boards of EU projects, as well as program committee member for international conferences. Her current research interests lie at the intersection of human–computer interaction, organizational communication, and organizational change with a special focus on the impact of technological innovations and public safety. Her research has been published in journals such as MIS Quarterly, Communications of the ACM, New Media and Society, and Journal of Organizational Behavior as well as international conferences in psychology, management, computational linguistics, and computer sciences and books. Most recently, she co-edited the book Application of Big Data for National Security (Elsevier). Fraser Sampson, LL.B. (Hons), LL.M., MBA Solicitor has over 30 years experience in the criminal justice sector. A former police officer, he is the Chief Executive and Solicitor for the Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire. While practicing with national law firms, he represented police officers and the Police Federation in a number of high profile disciplinary cases and inquiries. A graduate of the Top Management Programme at the National School of Government, he is the founding author of Blackstone’s Police Manuals, has written other key policing books published by Oxford University Press and is the editor of Blackstone’s Police Operational Handbook and the Routledge Companion to UK Counter Terrorism (by Andrew Staniforth). Having published over 90 articles Fraser is on the editorial board of the Oxford Journal Policing: A journal of strategy and practice, is a member of the board of the Centre of Excellence in Terrorism, Resilience, Intelligence, and Organised Crime Research at Sheffield Hallam University and is an Associate Member of the Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Recent publications include chapters in The Cyber Crime and Terrorism Investigators’ Handbook (Akhgar et al., Elsevier), Big Data for National Security—A Practitioner’s Guide to Emerging Technologies (Akhgar et al., Elsevier) and Policing in Northern Ireland—A New Beginning? It Can Be Done (Rea & Masefield, Liverpool University Press). Editors and Contributors xiii Contributors Babak Akhgar CENTRIC/Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK András Benczúr Institute for Computer Science and Control of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA SZTAKI), Budapest, Hungary Ben Brewster CENTRIC/Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK Elisavet Charalambous Advanced Integrated Technology Solutions & Services Ltd, Egkomi, Cyprus Neil Cunningham Police Service Northern Ireland, Belfast, Ireland Tony Day CENTRIC/Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK Géza Füzesi Hungarian Competition Authority, Budapest, Hungary Helen Gibson CENTRIC/Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK Eliot Higgins Bellingcat, Leicester, UK Christos Iliou Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Information Technologies Institute (CERTH-ITI), Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece George Kalpakis Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Information Technologies Institute (CERTH-ITI), Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece Dimitrios Kavallieros Center for Security Studies (KEMEA), Hellenic Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reconstruction, Athens, Greece Ioannis Kompatsiaris Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Information Technologies Institute (CERTH-ITI), Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece Nikolaos Koutras Advanced Integrated Technology Solutions & Services Ltd, Egkomi, Cyprus George Leventakis Center for Security Studies (KEMEA), Hellenic Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reconstruction, Athens, Greece Alison Lyle Wakefield, UK Laurence Marzell SERCO, Hook, UK Jonathan Middleton Police Service Northern Ireland, Belfast, Ireland Sándor Munk National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary George Papalexandratos Center for Security Studies (KEMEA), Hellenic Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reconstruction, Athens, Greece Steve Ramwell CENTRIC/Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK Quentin Revell Centre for Applied Science and Technology, Home Office, St Albans, UK xiv Editors and Contributors Fraser Sampson Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, UK Tom Smith Centre for Applied Science and Technology, Home Office, St Albans, UK Robert Stacey Centre for Applied Science and Technology, Home Office, St Albans, UK Andrew Staniforth Trends Institution, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Fahimeh Tabatabaei Mehr Alborz University, Tehran, Iran Theodora Tsikrika Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Information Technologies Institute (CERTH-ITI), Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece Pál Vadász National University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary Stefanos Vrochidis Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Information Technologies Institute (CERTH-ITI), Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece Douglas Wells CENTRIC/Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK B.L. William Wong Interaction Design Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK Part I Introduction Chapter 1 OSINT as an Integral Part of the National Security Apparatus Babak Akhgar Abstract The roles of law enforcement agencies include maintaining law and order, protecting citizens and preventing, detecting and investigating crime. OSINT can provide critical capability for LEAs and security services to complement and enhance their intelligence capability, as the ability to rapidly gather and accurately process and analyze open source data can be a significant help during investigations and used for national level strategic planning to combat crime. Thus, purposeful and legal monitoring, analyzing and visualizing data from open data sources should be considered as mandatory requirement of any national security strategy. This chapter showcases the breadth of current and potential uses of OSINT based on UK’s CONTEST strategy which provides the underlying basis of measures to prevent, pursue, protect and prepare against terror. It further proposes that to achieve efficient and innovative solutions, LEAs may be well advised to consider collaborations with private and public partners including academia using the successful implementation of the CENTRIC O...
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