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Unformatted text preview: INCLUDES Course framework Instructional section Sample exam questions AP Physics 1 ® COURSE AND EXAM DESCRIPTION Effective Fall 2019 AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based ® COURSE AND EXAM DESCRIPTION Effective Fall 2019 AP COURSE AND EXAM DESCRIPTIONS ARE UPDATED PERIODICALLY Please visit AP Central (apcentral.collegeboard.org) to determine whether a more recent course and exam description is available. About College Board College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, College Board was created to expand access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up of over 6,000 of the world’s leading educational institutions and is dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in education. Each year, College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a successful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness and college success—including the SAT® and the Advanced Placement® Program. The organization also serves the education community through research and advocacy on behalf of students, educators, and schools. For further information, visit collegeboard.org. AP Equity and Access Policy College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs by giving all willing and academically prepared students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underrepresented. Schools should make every effort to ensure their AP classes reflect the diversity of their student population. College Board also believes that all students should have access to academically challenging coursework before they enroll in AP classes, which can prepare them for AP success. It is only through a commitment to equitable preparation and access that true equity and excellence can be achieved. Designers: Sonny Mui and Bill Tully © 2019 College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of College Board. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit College Board on the web: collegeboard.org. Contents v Acknowledgments 1 About AP 4 AP Resources and Supports 6 Instructional Model 7 7 7 7 About the AP Physics 1 Course College Course Equivalent Prerequisites Laboratory Requirement COURSE FRAMEWORK 11 Introduction 13 Course Framework Components 15 Science Practices 17 Course Content 20 Course at a Glance 25 Unit Guides 25 Introduction 27 Using the Unit Guides LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 169 Lab Experiments 170 How to Set Up a Lab Program INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES 175 Selecting and Using Course Materials 176 Guided Inquiry in AP Physics 1 178 Instructional Strategies 189 Developing the Science Practices EXAM INFORMATION 203 Exam Overview 208 Sample Exam Questions APPENDIX 225 Table of Information: Equations Acknowledgments College Board would like to acknowledge the following committee members, consultants, and reviewers for their assistance with and commitment to the development of this course. All individuals and their affiliations were current at the time of contribution. Larry Cain, Davidson College, Davidson, NC Andrew Elby, University of Maryland, College Park, MD Eugenia Etkina, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ John Frensley, Prosper High School, Prosper, TX Dolores Gende, Shorecrest Preparatory School, St. Petersburg, FL Nick Giordano, Auburn University, Auburn, AL Robert Morse, St. Albans School, Washington, DC Deborah Roudebush, Oakton High School, Vienna, VA Gay Stewart, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV James VanderWeide, Hudsonville High School, Hudsonville, MI Connie Wells, Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO College Board Staff Ryan Feuer, Developmental Editor, AP Curricular Publications Amy Johnson, Director, AP Instructional Design and PD Resource Development Trinna Johnson, Director, AP Curriculum and Content Development David Jones, Director, AP Curriculum and Content Development Karen Lionberger, Senior Director, AP Science and Math Claire Lorenz, Senior Director, AP Instructional Design and PD Resource Development Daniel McDonough, Senior Director, AP Content Integration Allison Milverton, Director, AP Curricular Publications Tanya Sharpe, Senior Director, AP Physics Content Development SPECIAL THANKS John R. Williamson and John Eggebrecht AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based Course and Exam Description  V.1 | v Return to Table of Contents © 2019 College Board THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. About AP College Board’s Advanced Placement® Program (AP®) enables willing and academically prepared students to pursue college-level studies—with the opportunity to earn college credit, advanced placement, or both—while still in high school. Through AP courses in 38 subjects, each culminating in a challenging exam, students learn to think critically, construct solid arguments, and see many sides of an issue—skills that prepare them for college and beyond. Taking AP courses demonstrates to college admission officers that students have sought the most challenging curriculum available to them, and research indicates that students who score a 3 or higher on an AP Exam typically experience greater academic success in college and are more likely to earn a college degree than non-AP students. Each AP teacher’s syllabus is evaluated and approved by faculty from some of the nation’s leading colleges and universities, and AP Exams are developed and scored by college faculty and experienced AP teachers. Most four-year colleges and universities in the United States grant credit, advanced placement, or both on the basis of successful AP Exam scores; more than 3,300 institutions worldwide annually receive AP scores. AP Course Development and students with free formative assessments— Personal Progress Checks—that teachers can assign throughout the year to measure student progress as they acquire content knowledge and develop science practices. Enrolling Students: Equity and Access College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs by giving all willing and academically prepared students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underserved. College Board also believes that all students should have access to academically challenging coursework before they enroll in AP classes, which can prepare them for AP success. It is only through a commitment to equitable preparation and access that true equity and excellence can be achieved. Offering AP Courses: The AP Course Audit In an ongoing effort to maintain alignment with best practices in college-level learning, AP courses and exams emphasize challenging, research-based curricula aligned with higher education expectations. The AP Program unequivocally supports the principle that each school implements its own curriculum that will enable students to develop the content understandings and science practices described in the course framework. Individual teachers are responsible for designing their own curriculum for AP courses, selecting appropriate college-level readings, assignments, and resources. This course and exam description presents the content and science practices that are the focus of the corresponding college course and that appear on the AP Exam. It also organizes the content and science practices into a series of units that represent a sequence found in widely adopted college textbooks and that many AP teachers have told us they follow in order to focus their instruction. The intention of this publication is to respect teachers’ time and expertise by providing a roadmap that they can modify and adapt to their local priorities and preferences. Moreover, by organizing the AP course content and science practices into units, the AP Program is able to provide teachers While the unit sequence represented in this publication is optional, the AP Program does have a short list of curricular and resource requirements that must be fulfilled before a school can label a course “Advanced Placement” or “AP.” Schools wishing to offer AP courses must participate in the AP Course Audit, a process through which AP teachers’ course materials are reviewed by college faculty. The AP Course Audit was created to provide teachers and administrators with clear guidelines on curricular and resource requirements for AP courses and to help colleges and universities validate courses marked “AP” on students’ transcripts. This process ensures that AP teachers’ courses meet or exceed the curricular and resource expectations that college and secondary school faculty have established for college-level courses. AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based Course and Exam Description  V.1 | 1 Return to Table of Contents © 2019 College Board The AP Course Audit form is submitted by the AP teacher and the school principal (or designated administrator) to confirm awareness and understanding of the curricular and resource requirements. A syllabus or course outline, detailing how course requirements are met, is submitted by the AP teacher for review by college faculty. Please visit collegeboard.org/apcourseaudit for more information to support the preparation and submission of materials for the AP Course Audit. How the AP Program Is Developed The scope of content for an AP course and exam is derived from an analysis of hundreds of syllabi and course offerings of colleges and universities. Using this research and data, a committee of college faculty and expert AP teachers work within the scope of the corresponding college course to articulate what students should know and be able to do upon the completion of the AP course. The resulting course framework is the heart of this course and exam description and serves as a blueprint of the content and science practices that can appear on an AP Exam. The AP Test Development Committees are responsible for developing each AP Exam, ensuring the exam questions are aligned to the course framework. The AP Exam development process is a multiyear endeavor; all AP Exams undergo extensive review, revision, piloting, and analysis to ensure that questions are accurate, fair, and valid and that there is an appropriate spread of difficulty across the questions. Committee members are selected to represent a variety of perspectives and institutions (public and private, small and large schools and colleges) and a range of gender, racial/ethnic and regional groups. A list of each subject’s current AP Test Development Committee members is available on apcentral.collegeboard.org. Throughout AP course and exam development, College Board gathers feedback from various stakeholders in both secondary schools and higher education institutions. This feedback is carefully considered to ensure that AP courses and exams are able to provide students with a college-level learning experience and the opportunity to demonstrate their qualifications for advanced placement or college credit. How AP Exams Are Scored The exam scoring process, like the course and exam development process, relies on the expertise of both AP teachers and college faculty. While multiple-choice questions are scored by machine, the free-response AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based Course and Exam Description questions and through-course performance assessments, as applicable, are scored by thousands of college faculty and expert AP teachers. Most are scored at the annual AP Reading, while a small portion is scored online. All AP Readers are thoroughly trained, and their work is monitored throughout the Reading for fairness and consistency. In each subject, a highly respected college faculty member serves as Chief Faculty Consultant and, with the help of AP Readers in leadership positions, maintains the accuracy of the scoring standards. Scores on the free-response questions and performance assessments are weighted and combined with the results of the computer-scored multiple-choice questions, and this raw score is converted into a composite AP score on a 1–5 scale. AP Exams are not norm-referenced or graded on a curve. Instead, they are criterion-referenced, which means that every student who meets the criteria for an AP score of 2, 3, 4, or 5 will receive that score, no matter how many students that is. The criteria for the number of points students must earn on the AP Exam to receive scores of 3, 4, or 5—the scores that research consistently validates for credit and placement purposes—include: § The number of points successful college students earn when their professors administer AP Exam questions to them. § The number of points researchers have found to be predictive that an AP student will succeed when placed into a subsequent, higher-level college course. § Achievement-level descriptions formulated by college faculty who review each AP Exam question. Using and Interpreting AP Scores The extensive work done by college faculty and AP teachers in the development of the course and exam and throughout the scoring process ensures that AP Exam scores accurately represent students’ achievement in the equivalent college course. Frequent and regular research studies establish the validity of AP scores as follows: AP Score Credit Recommendation College Grade Equivalent 5 Extremely well qualified A 4 Well qualified A-, B+, B 3 Qualified B-, C+, C 2 Possibly qualified n/a 1 No recommendation n/a  V.1 | 2 Return to Table of Contents © 2019 College Board While colleges and universities are responsible for setting their own credit and placement policies, most private colleges and universities award credit and/ or advanced placement for AP scores of 3 or higher. Additionally, most states in the U.S. have adopted statewide credit policies that ensure college credit for scores of 3 or higher at public colleges and universities. To confirm a specific college’s AP credit/placement policy, a search engine is available at apstudent.org /creditpolicies. BECOMING AN AP READER Each June, thousands of AP teachers and college faculty members from around the world gather for seven days in multiple locations to evaluate and score the free-response sections of the AP Exams. Ninety-eight percent of surveyed educators who took part in the AP Reading say it was a positive experience. There are many reasons to consider becoming an AP Reader, including opportunities to: § Bring positive changes to the classroom: Surveys show that the vast majority of returning AP Readers—both high school and college educators—make improvements to the way they AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based Course and Exam Description teach or score because of their experience at the AP Reading. § Gain in-depth understanding of AP Exam and AP scoring standards: AP Readers gain exposure to the quality and depth of the responses from the entire pool of AP Exam takers and thus are better able to assess their students’ work in the classroom. § Receive compensation: AP Readers are compensated for their work during the Reading. Expenses, lodging, and meals are covered for Readers who travel. § Score from home: AP Readers have online distributed scoring opportunities for certain subjects. Check collegeboard.org/apreading for details. § Earn Continuing Education Units (CEUs): AP Readers earn professional development hours and CEUs that can be applied to PD requirements by states, districts, and schools. How to Apply Visit collegeboard.org/apreading for eligibility requirements and to start the application process.  V.1 | 3 Return to Table of Contents © 2019 College Board AP Resources and Supports By completing a simple activation process at the start of the school year, teachers and students receive access to a robust set of classroom resources. AP Classroom AP Classroom is a dedicated online platform designed to support teachers and students throughout their AP experience. The platform provides a variety of powerful resources and tools to provide yearlong support to teachers and enable students to receive meaningful feedback on their progress. UNIT GUIDES Appearing in this publication and on AP Classroom, these planning guides outline all required course content and science practices, organized into commonly taught units. Each unit guide suggests a sequence and pacing of content, scaffolds skill instruction across units, organizes content into topics, and provides tips on taking the AP Exam. PERSONAL PROGRESS CHECKS Formative AP questions for every unit provide feedback to students on the areas where they need to focus. Available online, Personal Progress Checks measure knowledge and science practices through multiple-choice questions with rationales to explain correct and incorrect answers, and free-response questions with scoring information. Because the Personal Progress Checks are formative, the results of these assessments cannot be used to evaluate teacher effectiveness or assign letter grades to students, and any such misuses are grounds for losing school authorization to offer AP courses.* PROGRESS DASHBOARD This dashboard allows teachers to review class and individual student progress throughout the year. Teachers can view class trends and see where students struggle with content and science practices that will be assessed on the AP Exam. Students can view their own progress over time to improve their performance before the AP Exam. AP QUESTION BANK This online library of real AP Exam questions provides teachers with secure questions to use in their classrooms. Teachers can find questions indexed by course topics and science practices, create customized tests, and assign them online or on paper. These tests enable students to practice and get feedback on each question. *To report misuses, please call, 877-274-6474 (International: +1-212-632-1781). AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based Course and Exam Description  V.1 | 4 Return to Table of Contents © 2019 College Board Digital Activation In order to teach an AP class and make sure students are registered to take the AP Exam, teachers must first complete the digital activation process. Digital activation gives students and teachers access to resources and gathers students’ exam registration information online, eliminating most of the answer sheet bubbling that has added to testing time and fatigue. AP teachers and students begin by signing in to My AP and completing a simple activation process at the start of the school year, which provides access to all AP resources, including AP Classroom. To complete digital activation: § Teachers and students sign in to, or create, their College Board accounts. § Teachers confirm that they have added the course they teach to their AP Course Audit account and have had it approved by their school’s administrator. § Teachers or AP Coordinators, depending on who the school has decided is responsible, set up class sections so students can access AP resources and have exams ordered on their behalf. § Students join class sections with a join code provided by their teacher or AP coordinator. § Students will be asked for additional registration information upon joining their first class section, which eliminates the need for extensive answer sheet bubbling on exam day. While the digital activation process takes a short time for teachers, students, and AP coordinators to complete, overall it helps save time and provides the following additional benefits: § Access to AP resources and supports: Teachers have access to resources specifically designed to support instruction and provide feedback to students throughout the school year as soon as activation is complete. § Streamlined exam ordering: AP Coordinators can create exam orders from the same online ...
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