1. - Chapter 1 Scientific Method o Observations o...

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Chapter 1 Scientific Method o Observations o Hypothesis Must be testable If-then format Experiment Independent and dependent variables Usually record data with the independent Study one variable Control group Random: everyone has an equal probability Characteristics of a good experiment o Single variable o Control o Multiple (replicate) results o Example from research at John Hopkins experiment If Olestra potato chips cause intestinal distress, then people who eat them will get cramps No link to chips and cramps in hypothesis o Theory Chapter 3 Major organic molecules o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Nucleic acids o Protein o **Do not need to know functional groups or structures of amino acids Carbohydrates o Common energy storage o Molecule: sugars and starches o Glucose (monomer): most simple o Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin (polymers) The more simple the molecule, the easier and faster it breaks down Glycogen: the way energy is stored in the muscles Cellulose: plants, hard to break down Chitin: exoskeleton of insects o Disaccharides Type of oligosaccharide Two mono saccharides bonded Glucose: 6 carbon ring structure o Cellulose and plant walls Cellulose doesn’t break down Lipids o Hydrophobic o More energy per gram than carbohydrates o Fats and oils/ waxes
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Certain vitamins that are oil soluble Many hormones are made of fats Have more energy-measured in calories Long term energy storage is usually in the form of lipids o Phospholipids Main component of cell membrane in water, phospholipids form a stable bilayer The heads face outward and the tails face inward (common in membranes) Nucleic Acids o Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) o Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) o Made of nucleotides (monomer) 3 parts Phosphate group, sugar, nitrogenous base Sugar and phosphate form backbone of nucleic acids ATP: a nucleotide Information carrying molecules Proteins o Made up of linked amino acids (monomer) joined by peptide bonds (polypeptides) Includes enzymes o 8 essential amino acids We can’t make Must take them in our food o Enzymes Catalyst (increase reaction rate) Reactants are called substrates o **negative feedback Sometimes the product of a reaction series inhibits the first enzyme in the series This represents stabilizing or negative feedback—the product feeds back to stop its production o Factors affecting enzyme activity Inhibitors (may bind active site or change shape of enzyme) pH (ions in solution may affect bonds in enzyme) temperature (increased temperature, increased reaction rate) Chapter 4 Cell Theory o Cell structure Membrane, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi, mitochondria, lysosomes o I. All living material is made of cells (Schleiden and Schwann: 1800s) o II. Living cells arise from pre-existing cells (Virchow 1858) Biogenesis vs. spontaneous generation
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1. - Chapter 1 Scientific Method o Observations o...

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