NR 224 Funds final example.docx - I Infection control 1 The...

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I. Infection control 1. The infection process (chain of infection)Causative agent (bacteria, virus, fungus, prion, parasite)◯◯Reservoir (human, animal, water, soil, insects)◯◯Portal of exit from (means for leaving) the host■■ Respiratory tract (droplet, airborne)☐☐Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae■■ Gastrointestinal tract☐☐Shigella, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi, hepatitis A■■ Genitourinary tract☐☐Escherichia coli, hepatitis A, herpes simplex virus (type 1), HIV■■ Skin/mucous membranes☐☐Herpes simplex virus and varicella■■ Blood/body fluids☐☐HIV and hepatitis B and C◯◯Mode of transmission■■Contact☐☐Direct physical contact – Person to person☐☐Indirect contact with an inanimate object – Object to person☐☐Fecal-oral transmission – Handling food after using a restroom and failing towash hands■■ Droplet☐☐Sneezing, coughing, and talking■■ Airborne☐☐Sneezing and coughing■■ Vector borne☐☐Animals or insects as intermediaries (ticks transmit Lyme disease; mosquitoes transmit West Nile and malaria)◯◯Portal of entry to the host■■ May be the same as the portal of exit◯◯Susceptible host■■ Compromised defense mechanisms (immunocompromised, breaks in skin) leave the host more susceptible to infections2. Stages of an infection◯◯Incubation – interval between the pathogen entering the body and the presentation of thefirst symptom.◯◯Prodromal stage – interval from onset of general symptoms to more distinct symptoms. During this time, the pathogen is multiplying.◯◯Illness stage – interval when symptoms specific to the infection occur.◯◯Convalescence – interval when acute symptoms disappear. Total recovery could take daysto months.3. The most common risks include:◯◯Inadequate hand hygiene (client and caregivers).◯◯Individuals who have compromised health or defenses against infection, which include:■■ Those who are immunocompromised.
■■ Those who have had surgery.■■ Those with indwelling devices.■■ A break in the skin (the body’s best protection against infection).■■ Those with poor oxygenation.■■ Those with impaired circulation.■■ Those who have chronic or acute disease such as diabetes mellitus, adrenal insufficiency, renal failure, hepatic failure, or chronic lung disease.◯◯Caregivers using medical or surgical asepsis that does not follow the established standards.◯◯Clients who have poor personal hygiene or poor nutrition, smoke, or consume excessive amounts of alcohol, and those experiencing stress.◯◯Clients who live in a very crowded environment◯◯ Older adult clients.

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