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Unformatted text preview: The University of San Francisco USF Scholarship: a digital repository @ Gleeson Library | Geschke Center Doctoral Dissertations Theses, Dissertations, Capstones and Projects 2017 The Role of Self-Determination and CoConstruction to Support Meaningful Student Participation in an Individualized Education Program Meeting in High School Trudy Ruth Gross University of San Francisco, [email protected] Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Special Education and Teaching Commons Recommended Citation Gross, Trudy Ruth, "The Role of Self-Determination and Co-Construction to Support Meaningful Student Participation in an Individualized Education Program Meeting in High School" (2017). Doctoral Dissertations. 344. This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses, Dissertations, Capstones and Projects at USF Scholarship: a digital repository @ Gleeson Library | Geschke Center. It has been accepted for inclusion in Doctoral Dissertations by an authorized administrator of USF Scholarship: a digital repository @ Gleeson Library | Geschke Center. For more information, please contact [email protected] The University of San Francisco THE ROLE OF SELF-DETERMINATION AND CO-CONSTRUCTION TO SUPPORT MEANINGFUL STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN AN INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM MEETING IN HIGH SCHOOL A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School of Education Learning and Instruction Department In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education in Special Education by Trudy Ruth Gross San Francisco May 2017 THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN FRANCISCO Dissertation Abstract The Role of Self-Determination and Co-Construction to Support Meaningful Student Participation in an Individualized Education Program Meeting in High School By participating within the educational setting in making decisions about their lives that reach beyond choice-making, students with disabilities who acquire the skills of self-determination may express interests and goals through their own authentic voice. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the experiences and participation of two high-school students labeled with intellectual disability or autism at their Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings following participation in the SelfDetermined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI). Student participation in the IEP process provides an avenue through which self-determined qualities emerge, and verbal and nonverbal participation can occur in a meaningful way. Connections, patterns, and insights were examined to create an overall picture of the essential characteristics and component elements of self-determination displayed by the participating students, and through self-determination reports as expressed by the participating educators and parents. Previous research has shown that direct instruction informing students about the IEP process and incorporating skills such as decision-making, problem-solving, goalsetting, self-advocacy, and self-awareness is predictive of self-determination. Findings from this study demonstrated that incorporating the essential characteristics and component elements of self-determination into classroom instruction through the SDLMI i were reflected in student participation in their IEP meeting, and reinforced the role that adult members of the team can have in the co-construction of information. Both classroom instruction and co-construction of information are important steps in ensuring that students are participating in, and not simply attending, their IEP meeting. Implications for future research and educational practice were explored. Keywords: self-determination, autism, intellectual disability, individualized education program, transition planning, high school, cultural diversity ii This dissertation, written under the direction of the candidate’s dissertation committee and approved by the members of the committee, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Special Education. The content and research methodologies presented in this work represent the work of the candidate alone. Trudy Gross May 4, 2017 Candidate, Trudy Gross Date Dissertation Committee Emily Nusbaum May 4, 2017 Chairperson, Dr. Emily Nusbaum Date Nicola McClung May 4, 2017 Dr. Nicola McClung Date Noah Borrero May 4, 2017 Dr. Noah Borrero Date iii Acknowledgements To Dr. Emily Nusbaum for your consistent support and positivity over the past two years. My outlook on education is forever changed through our partnership. I look forward to future connections. To Dr. Christine Yeh and Dr. Xornam Apedoe, committee members for my proposal defense, for your student-centered feedback and focus for my study. To Dr. Nicola McClung for stepping in and lending your reflective and constructive feedback to the benefit of my dissertation and future endeavors. To Dr. Noah Borrero, for your insight on how I am situated in my work. My deep appreciation to Emily, Nicola, and Noah for the value you have placed in this work and encouraging me to take a critical position within the body of research on self-determination. To Kawhi’s case manager, thank you for supporting both my research studies. I appreciate the depth of reflection on your practice. To Bianca’s case manager, for exploring self-determination with your students. To Kawhi and his mother for participating in both research studies; your time and insight have been invaluable. Kawhi, you are a model student in commitment to academics and athletics! To Bianca, her parents, and the translator for helping me explore selfdetermination from a variety of angles. To Dr. Yvonne Bui who I will always refer to as “my advisor.” I appreciate the opportunities I have been privileged to participate in through your leadership. From you I learned the value of scholarly contributions. iv Dedication To Denae, ’17, for putting reality to my doctoral goal, choosing USF together, and keeping each other from giving up. Setting the world on fire, from here! To FUHSD colleagues and scholars Welton, Columbia ’16; Marianne, USC ’17; and Brooke, Mills ’17. To Denae, Elaine, and Val: my USF gals. I will be forever grateful to have joined you all in this adventure on January 21, 2012. I am inspired by each of you as strong women, educators, wives, and mothers. And to Ione and Steve Kuhner for being my Friday night home away from home, breakfast and all! We all benefitted from your hospitality and conversation. To Kath, Heidi, and my boys: Eliot, William, and Zachary. Your support and hugs have sustained me. We have many family nights and Camp StaTru visits to catch up on! To Anthony, Tara, and Maeve: many of your life moments as a family are inextricably tied to my USF journey. To my BFF Chris, together we have shared every aspect of finding our who, what, and where. To Stacey, my wife and partner in all endeavors. Words cannot express my love and appreciation for your unending support of and belief in me. Together we are unstoppable! v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................... i SIGNATURE PAGE ....................................................................................................... iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................. iv DEDICATION ................................................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................... ix LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... x Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY .......................................................................... 1 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................. 1 Purpose of the Study .................................................................................................. 11 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................... 11 Theoretical Rationale ................................................................................................. 12 Background and Need ................................................................................................ 18 Research Questions .................................................................................................... 20 Summary .................................................................................................................... 20 Definition of Terms .................................................................................................... 21 II. THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................................................... 24 Student Expression of Self-Determination ................................................................ 25 Measurement of Self-Determination .......................................................................... 28 Teacher’s Outcome Expectancies for Students Displaying the Component Elements of Self-Determination ................................................................................ 31 Parents’ Outcome Expectancies for Their Children Displaying the Component Elements of Self-Determination ................................................................................ 32 Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction ....................................................... 34 Limitations in the Current Body of Research ............................................................ 37 Summary .................................................................................................................... 42 III. METHODS ................................................................................................................ 44 Research Questions .................................................................................................... 45 Research Design ......................................................................................................... 46 Sample ........................................................................................................................ 46 Protection of Human Subjects ................................................................................... 53 Instrumentation .......................................................................................................... 54 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................. 67 Analytic Path .............................................................................................................. 68 Summary .................................................................................................................... 74 vi IV. RESULTS .................................................................................................................. 75 Research Questions .................................................................................................... 75 Organization of the Chapter ....................................................................................... 76 Summary of Results ................................................................................................. 137 V. SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS ................ 140 Summary of Study ................................................................................................... 140 Discussion of Findings ............................................................................................. 143 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 150 Limitations ............................................................................................................... 151 Implications .............................................................................................................. 151 Summary .................................................................................................................. 155 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 158 APPENDIX A District and School Permission ............................................................. 167 APPENDIX B Teacher Consent Form .......................................................................... 171 APPENDIX C Student Consent Form ........................................................................... 174 APPENDIX D Parent Consent Form ............................................................................. 177 APPENDIX E Interview Protocol ................................................................................. 180 APPENDIX F AIR Self-Determination Scale: Student Form ....................................... 188 APPENDIX G AIR Self-Determination Scale: Parent Form ........................................ 197 APPENDIX H AIR Self-Determination Scale: Educator Form .................................... 205 APPENDIX I Arc Self-Determination Scale ................................................................. 214 APPENDIX J Student Questions for Phase 1 of the SDLMI ........................................ 223 APPENDIX K Teacher Objectives and Educational Supports for Phase 1 of the SDLMI ..................................................................................................................... 225 APPENDIX L Student Questions for Phase 2 of the SDLMI ....................................... 227 APPENDIX M Teacher Objectives and Educational Supports for Phase 2 of the SDLMI ..................................................................................................................... 229 APPENDIX N Student Questions for Phase 3 of the SDLMI ....................................... 231 vii APPENDIX O Teacher Objectives and Educational Supports for Phase 3 of the SDLMI ..................................................................................................................... 233 APPENDIX P Student Worksheets ............................................................................... 235 viii List of Tables Table 1: Racial and Ethnic Make-up of Students in Elementary and Secondary Grades in Fall 2013 ............................................................................................................ 2 Table 2: Outcomes for Studies Implementing the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction ......................................................................................................... 36 Table 3: Racial and Ethnic Make-up of Students at the High School Where the Study Took Place ............................................................................................................. 48 Table 4: Timeline for Implementation of the Five Activities of Research and Data Collection ................................................................................................................ 54 Table 5: Categories of the AIR Self-Determination Scale ............................................... 56 Table 6: Categories of the Arc’s Self-Determination Scale ............................................. 58 Table 7: IEP Outline ........................................................................................................ 72 ix List of Figures Figure 1: A Functional Model of Self-Determination ..................................................... 16 Figure 2: Phase 1 of the SDLMI: Set a Goal ................................................................... 61 Figure 3: Phase 2 of the SDLMI: Take Action ................................................................ 64 Figure 4: Phase 3 of the SDLMI: Adjust Goal or Plan .................................................... 66 x CHAPTER I Introduction to the Study The opening statements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, IDEA (2004), focus on developments in research and educational practice that have occurred since implementation of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. One such development has been in the area of self-determination, a research- and evidence-based practice rooted in the meaningful participation of students with disabilities across all environments. The tenets of IDEA (2004) include the need to hold high expectations for children with disabilities to meet developmental goals to the maximum extent possible, so they are prepared to be productive and independent adults. By participating in making decisions about their lives within the educational setting that reach beyond simple choice-making, students with disabilities who acquire the skills of self-determination may express interests and goals through their own authentic voice. A partnership formed between students, parents, and educational professionals that is grounded in self-determination bridges beyond basic compliance of the IDEA, to the true intention of the law in support of civil rights for all people. Statement of the Problem As of the 2013-14 school year, 6.5 million children and youth ages three to 21 were receiving special education services (Kena et al., 2016). This figure represents approximately 13% of all public school students in the nation. Table 1 details the racial and ethnic make-up of all children and youth in elementary and secondary education during the 2013-14 school year, along with the details for students receiving special education services. This includes students who speak a non-dominant language— sometimes referred to as “minority” or as racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse (RELD)—who are African American, Asian American and Pacific Islander American, Hispanic American, Native American, students who speak English as a second language, and students who are undocumented or of immigrant status (Ford, 2012; Trainor, Lindstrom, Simon-Burroughs, Martin, & Sorrells, 2008). Table 1 Racial and Ethnic Make-up of Students in Elementary and Secondary Grades in Fall 2013 Race or Ethnicity Percent within K-12 50% 16% 25% 5% 1% 3% European American African American Hispanic American Asian American/Pacific Islander American American Indian or Alaska Native Two or more races Percent within Special Education 13% 15% 12% 17% 17% 12% The IDEA (2004) outlines 13 eligibility categories for special education: intellectual disability, hard-of-hearing, deaf, speech language impairment, visual impairment, emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, specific learning disability, deaf-blind, multiple disabilities, autism, and traumatic brain injury. Across racial and ethnic groups, the percentage of students receiving special education services labeled with intellectual disability1 was 7%, and labeled with autism was 8%, the two areas of eligibility represented in this study. 1 IDEA (2004) identifies intellectual disability as one of the 13 categories of eligibility for special education. Neither research nor school district practice is consistent in the use of terms such as intellectual disability, moderate to severe, developmentally disabled, or severe and profound. For the purpose of this dissertation, the term intellectual disability will be utilized. 2 Despite the intention of the IDEA (2004) to prepare individuals with disabilities to lead productive and independent lives, their quality of life reflects poorer outcomes than their non-disabled peers along many dimensions. According to the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), the majority of stud...
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