Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) TestProstate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States, (not counting non-melanoma skin cancer), (CDC, 2018). Digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test are two ways of screening for prostate cancer (Ball, Dains, Flynn, Solomon, & Stewart, 2015; Dains, Baumann, & Scheibel, 2016). The validity and reliability of the PSA test have been in question. The question is: do the benefits of the PSA test outweigh the potential harm of false-positives, unnecessary biopsies, and overdiagnosis (Ball et al., 2017). According to Taksler, Keating, and Rothberg (2018),10% to 12% of men undergoing regular (PSA) testing will experience a false-positive result. When the PSA test correctly detects a tumor, it is unable to distinguish between the indolent tumor and the lethal tumor (Ball et al., 2017). If the individual is treated for the indolent tumor, he will have the harm of prostate cancer treatment without any improvement in health outcome (Ball et al., 2017). Two large trials were
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- Summer '15
- Prostate cancer, ball