hesi key concepts answered .docx

hesi key concepts answered .docx - HESI for Pharmacology...

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HESI for Pharmacology Drug Study List Acetylcysteine p.947 Ch54 Prototype Summary: Acetylcysteine Indications: Mucolytic adjunctive therapy for abnormal, viscid, or inspissated mucous secretions in acute and chronic bronchopulmonary disorders; to lessen hepatic injury in cases of acetaminophen toxicity. (Antidote) Actions: Splits links in the mucoproteins contained in the respiratory mucus secretions, decreasing the viscosity of the secretions; protects liver cells from acetaminophen effects. Pharmacokinetics: Route Onset Peak Duration Instillation, inhalation 1 min 5–10 min 2–3 h Oral 30–60 min 1–2 h Unknown T 1/2 : 6.25 hours; metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine. Adverse Effects: Nausea, stomatitis, urticaria, bronchospasm, rhinorrhea. Teaching: Slight, disagreeable sulfuric odor from solution may be noticed during initial administration but disappears quickly. Adequate hydration is important part of the therapy. Follow guidelines for proper coughing and deep breathing techniques. Nursing Implications: Monitor rate, depth, rhythm, type of respiration (abdominal, thoracic). If bronchospasm occur, discontinue and notify HCP; bronchodilator may be added to therapy. Book info: Mucolytic, work to break down mucus to aid high-risk respiratory patients in coughing up thick, tenacious secretions. Patients may be suffering from conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, or tuberculosis. Allopurinol p. 221 CH 14 Action: Decreases uric acid production by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, an enzyme responsible for converting xanthine to uric acid. Indications: Gout or hyperuricemia, Hyperuricemia caused by malignancies, To prevent uric acid nephropathy during cancer chemotherapy, Recurrent calcium oxalate calculi. Med: PO; take after meals with plenty of fluids; IV Adverse Effects: PO: drowsiness, unusual hair loss. IV: rash, nausea, vomiting. Rare: diarrhea, headache. Teaching: May take 1 wk or longer for full therapy effect. Maintain adequate hydration; drink 2500-3000 ml of fluid daily while taking medication. Avoid tasks that require alertness, motor skills until response to drug is established. Avoid alcohol (may increase uric acid).
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Nursing Implications: discontinue medication immediately if rash or other evidence of allergic reaction occurs. Monitor I&O; assess serum chemistries, uric acid, hepatic function. Assess urine for cloudiness, unusual color, odor. Gout: assess pain, joint tenderness, grip strength and swelling. Book info: Allopurinol ( Aloprim , Zyloprim ) inhibits the enzyme that allows the conversion of purines to uric acid, which is toxic to the body. It is used to help manage patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other malignancies that result in elevated levels of serum and urinary uric acid levels. It lowers the level of uric acid to protect the kidneys and tissues. It is given orally at doses of 600 to 800 mg a day for 2 to 3 days with high fluid intake, maintenance doses are then determined based on the patient’s response and serum uric acid levels.
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  • Spring '16
  • Gloria Seno
  • Uric acid

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