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anatomy exam 5 study guide.docx - Anatomy 201 Exam 5 Study...

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Anatomy 201Exam 5 Study GuideBlood Cell types and identification-PlasmaoContains proteinsoAlbumin – transports solutes and buffers pHoGlobulins (, , γ) – play roles in transport, clotting and immunityoFibrinogin – precursor for fibrin involved in blood clotting-Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)oDonut shapedoDeliver oxygen TO the celloBring carbon dioxide to the lungs for expulsionoSickle Cell AnemiaHereditary hemoglobin defectOccurs mostly among Africans and individuals of African decentBeneficial in protecting against malaria, but the sickle cells cannot supply adequate oxygen to the tissues, are sticky and fragileMay cause blood clots leading to stroke, paralysis, heart and kidney failure and early deathoHemoglobinCarries gases in the bloodContains 4 globulins and one heme groupHeme has a ferrous iron in the middle which binds oxygenoBlood typeDetermined by glycolipid compositionA, B, AB, O (act as antigens) Rh factor – either positive or negativeoFormation of Red Blood CellsErythropoiesisFormed from a pluripotent stem cell that differentiates into a colony forming erythrocyteAs an RBC matures, it loses its organelles including its nucleusMaturecellPrecursorcellsColony–formingunit (CFU)Pluripotentstem cellErythrocyteReticulocyteErythroblastErythrocyteCFU
-White Blood Cells (leukocytes) oFormation: from the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into colony forming cellsInvolved in the immune responseGranulocytes – contain organelles [neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils]Agranulocytes – few or no organelles [lymphocytes and monocytes]oEosinophilsLarge two lobed nucleus connect by a thin strandAbundant granules
2-4% of WBCsInvolved in allergies, parasitic infection, collagen diseases and diseases of the spleen and CNSoBasophilsU or S shaped nucleus hidden by granules Secretes two chemicals: histamine (vasodilator) and heparin(anticoagulant)Less than 0.5%-1% of WBCsoNeutrophils3 to 5 nuclear lobes (polymorphonuclear) connected by a thin strandFine granulesBacterial infection Phagocytosis and digestionChemical toxins (hypochlorite and superoxide anion whichforms hydrogen peroxide)60%-70% of WBCsoMonocyteLargest WBCsLarge kidney-shaped nucleusOnly a few fine granulesCount increases during inflammation and viralinfectionTransform into macrophages (phagocytes)3%-8% of WBCsoLymphocyteSmallest WBCs Round nucleus, most of the cellResponds to infection and immune responseT-cells – fight infection directlyB-cells – differentiate into antibody secreting cells (plasma cells)-PlateletsDistribution percentages in the bodyHeartAnatomy including arteries and veins of the heartMonocyteLymphocyte
-Arteries of the heartoRight coronary artery– runs anteriorly between the pulmonary trunk and the right

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Anatomy, right ventricle, right coronary artery

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