Latin terms.doc - Latin Translation Notes a maiore ad minus from the greater to the smaller From general to particular\"What holds for all X also holds

Latin terms.doc - Latin Translation Notes a maiore ad minus...

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Unformatted text preview: Latin Translation Notes a maiore ad minus from the greater to the smaller From general to particular; "What holds for all X also holds for one particular X." – argumentum a fortiori a minore ad maius from the smaller to the greater An inference from smaller to bigger; what is forbidden at least is forbidden at more ("If riding a bicycle with two on it is forbidden, riding it with three on it is at least similarly punished".) A solis ortu usque ad occasum from sunrise to sunset Said of an argument either for a conclusion that rests on the alleged absurdity of an opponent's argument (cf. appeal to ridicule) or that another assertion is false because it is absurd. The phrase is distinct from reductio ad absurdum, which is usually a valid logical argument. ab absurdo from the absurd ab abusu ad usum non valet consequentia An inference from an abuse Rights abused are still rights; confer abusus non to a use is not valid tollit usum. ab aeterno from the eternal Literally, "from the everlasting", "from eternity", and "from outside of time". Philosophically and theologically, it indicates something, e. g., the universe, that was created from outside of time. Sometimes the phrase is used incorrectly to denote "from time immemorial", "since the beginning of time", or "from an infinitely remote time in the past", i. e., not from without time but from a point within time. ab antiquo from the ancient From ancient times a bene placito from one well pleased Or, "at will" or "at one's pleasure". This phrase, and its Italian (beneplacito) and Spanish (beneplácito) derivatives, are synonymous with the more common ad libitum (at pleasure). ab epistulis from the letters[1] Regarding or pertaining to correspondence; [1] secretarial office in the Roman Empire ab extra from beyond/without Legal term denoting derivation from an external source, rather than from a person's self or mind, this latter source being denoted by "ab intra". ab hinc from here on Also sometimes written as "abhinc" ab imo pectore from the deepest chest Or "from the bottom of my heart", "with deepest affection", or "sincerely". Attributed to Julius Caesar. ab inconvenienti New Latin for "based on unsuitability", "from inconvenience", or "from hardship". An argumentum ab inconvenienti is one based on the difficulties involved in pursuing a line of from an inconvenient thing reasoning, and is thus a form of appeal to consequences. The phrase refers to the legal principle that an argument from inconvenience has great weight. from the cradle Thus, "from the beginning" or "from infancy". Incunabula is commonly used in English to refer to the earliest stage or origin of something, and especially to copies of books that predate the spread of the printing press circa AD 1500. ab initio from the beginning Or, "from the outset", referring to an inquiry or investigation. In literature, it refers to a story told from the beginning rather than in medias res("from the middle"). In law, it refers to a thing being true from its beginning or from the instant of the act, rather than from when the court declared it so. An annulment is a judicial declaration of the invalidity or nullity of a marriage ab initio; i. e., that the pseudo marriage was "no thing" (in Latin, nullius, from which the word "nullity" derives) and never existed, except perhaps in name only. In science, the phrase refers to the first principles. In other contexts, it often refers to beginner or training courses. Ab initio mundi means "from the beginning of the world". ab intestato from an intestate From a decedent, i. e., a dead person, who died without executing a legal will; cf. ex testamento ab intra from within From the inside; the opposite of ab extra ab invito unwillingly ab irato from an angry man ab incunabulis Or, "by an angry person"; used in law to describe a decision or action that is detrimental to those whom it affects and is motivated by hatred or anger instead of reason. The form irato is masculine; however, this does not limit the application of the phrase to men: rather, "person" is meant because the phrase probably elides "homo" ("man/person"), not "vir" ("men"). From the origin, beginning, source, or commencement; i. e., "originally". It is the source of the word aboriginal. ab origine from the source ab ovo usque ad mala From Horace, Satire, 1.3. Means "from beginning to end", based on the Roman main meal typically beginning with an egg dish and ending with fruit; from the egg to the apples cf. the English phrase soup to nuts. Thus, ab ovo means "from the beginning", and can connote thoroughness. absens haeres non an absent person will not erit be an heir Legal principle that a person who is not present is unlikely to inherit [with] the defendant being absent Legal phrase denoting action "in the absence of the accused" "let injury be absent" Expresses the wish that no insult or injury be presumed or done by the speaker's words, i. e., "no offense". Also rendered absit iniuria verbis("let injury be absent from these words"). Contrast with absit invidia. "let ill will/envy be absent" Said in the context of a statement of excellence: unlike the English expression "no offense", absit invidia is intended to ward off envious deities who might interpret a statement of excellence as hubris. Also extended to absit invidia verbo, ("may ill will/envy be absent from these words"). Contrast it with absit iniuria verbis. An explanation of Livy's usage. absit omen let an omen be absent Or, "let this not be a bad omen". Expresses the wish that something seemingly ill-boding does not turn out to be an omen for future events, and calls on Divine protection against evil. absolutum dominium absolute dominion Total, if not supreme, power, dominion, ownership, and sovereignty I acquit Legal term pronounced by a judge to acquit a defendant following his trial. Te absolvo or absolvo te, translated, "I forgive you", said by Roman Catholic priests during the Sacrament of Confession, in Latin prior to the Second Vatican Council and in vernacular thereafter. absente reo (abs. re.) absit iniuria absit invidia absolvo abundans cautela non nocet abundant caution does no harm Frequently re-phrased as "one can never be too careful" from one, learn all From Virgil, Aeneid, Book 2, 65-6. Refers to situations where a single example or observation indicates a general or universal truth. Visible in the court of the character King Silas in the American television series Kings. ab urbe condita (a.u.c.) from the city having been founded Or, "from the founding of Rome", which occurred in 753 BC, according to Livy's count. It was used as a referential year in ancient Rome from which subsequent years were calculated, prior to being replaced by other dating conventions. Also anno urbis conditae (a.u.c.); literally "in the year of the founded city". abusus non tollit usum misuse does not remove use The misuse of some thing does not eliminate the possibility of its correct use. ab utili from utility Used of an argument abyssus abyssum invocat deep calleth unto deep From Psalms 42:7; some translations have "sea calls to sea". a caelo usque ad centrum from the sky to the center Or, "from Heaven all the way to the center of the Earth". In law, it may refer to the proprietary principle of Cuius est solum, eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos ("Whosesoever is the soil, it is his up to the sky and down to the depths [of the Earth]"). a capite ad calcem from head to heel From top to bottom; all the way through; or from head to toe; see also a pedibus usque ad caput accipe hoc take this Motto of the 848 Naval Air Squadron, British Royal Navy accusare nemo se debet nisi coram Deo no one ought to accuse himself except in the presence of God Legal principle denoting that an accused person is entitled to plead not guilty, and that a witness is not obligated to respond or submit a document that would incriminate himself. A similar phrase is nemo tenetur se ipsum accusare ("no one is bound to accuse himself"). See right to silence. a contrario from the opposite ab uno disce omnes Equivalent to "on the contrary" and "au contraire". An argumentum a contrario ("argument from the contrary") is an argument or proof by contrast or direct opposite. mortal actions never deceive the gods Ovid, Tristia, 1.2.97: si tamen acta deos numquam mortalia fallunt, / a culpa facinus scitis abesse mea. ("Yet if mortal actions never deceive the gods, / you know that crime was absent from my fault.") acta est fabula plaudite The play has been performed; applaud! Common ending to ancient Roman comedies; Suetonius claimed in The Twelve Caesars that these were the last words of Augustus; Sibeliusapplied them to the third movement of his String Quartet No. 2, so that his audience would recognize that it was the last one, because a fourth would be ordinarily expected. acta non verba Deeds not Words Motto of the United States Merchant Marine Academy acta sanctorum Deeds of the Saints Also used in the singular preceding a saint's name: Acta Sancti ("Deeds of Saint") N.; a common title of hagiography works acta deos numquam mortalia fallunt actiones secundum action follows belief fidei "We act according to what we believe (ourselves to be)."[2] actus me invito factus non est meus actus the act done by me against my will is not my act actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea The act does not make [a person] guilty unless the mind should be guilty. Legal principle of the presumption of mens rea in a crime actus reus guilty act The actual crime that is committed, as distinguished from the intent, thinking, and rationalizing that procured the criminal act; the external elements of a crime, as contrasted with the mens rea, i. e., the internal elements. ad absurdum to absurdity In logic, to the point of being silly or nonsensical. See also reductio ad absurdum. Not to be confused with ab absurdo ("from the absurd"). to abundance In legal language, used when providing additional evidence to an already sufficient collection. Also used commonly, as an equivalent of "as if this wasn't enough". ad abundantiam ad acta to the archives ad altiora tendo I strive towards higher things ad arbitrium at will, at pleasure ad astra to the stars to the stars through ad astra per aspera difficulties Denoting the irrelevance of a thing Name or motto, in whole or part, of many organizations' publications Or, "a rough road leads to the stars", as on the Launch Complex 34 memorial plaque for the astronauts of Apollo 1; motto of the State of Kansas and other organisations ad augusta per angusta to rise to a high position overcoming hardships ad captandumvulgus in order to capture the crowd To appeal to the masses. Often said of or used by politicians. An argumentum ad captandum is an argument designed to please the crowd. ad clerum to the clergy Formal letter or communication in the Christian tradition from a bishop to his clergy. An "ad clerum" may be an encouragement in a time of celebration or a technical explanation of new regulations or canons. a Deucalione from or since Deucalion A long time ago; from Gaius Lucilius, Satires, 6, 284 ad eundem to the same An ad eundem degree, from the Latin ad eundem gradum ("to the same step" or "to the same degree"), is a courtesy degree awarded by a university or college to an alumnus of another. It is not an honorary degree but a recognition of the formal learning for which the degree was earned at another college. ad fontes to the sources Motto of Renaissance humanism and the Protestant Reformation ad fundum to the bottom Said during a generic toast; equivalent to "bottoms up!" In other contexts, it generally means "back to the basics". to this Generally means "for this", in the sense of improvised or intended only for a specific, immediate purpose. ad hominem to the man Or, "at the man". Typically used in argumentum ad hominem, a logical fallacy consisting of criticizing a person when the subject of debate is the person's ideas or argument, on the mistaken assumption that the soundness of an argument is dependent on the qualities of the proponent. ad honorem to the honour "for the honour", not for the purpose of gaining any material reward ad infinitum to infinity Enduring forever. Used to designate a property which repeats in all cases in mathematical proof. Also used in philosophical contexts to mean "repeating in all cases". ad interim (ad int.) for the meantime As in the term "chargé d'affaires ad interim", denoting a diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador at the Greek Calends Attributed by Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars to Augustus. The Calends were specific days of the Roman calendar, not of the Greek, and so the "Greek Kalends" would never occur. Similar to "when pigs fly". toward pleasure Loosely, "according to what pleases" or "as you wish"; libitum comes from the past participle of libere, "to please". It typically indicates in music and theatrical scripts that the performer has the liberty to change or omit something. Ad lib is specifically often used when someone improvisesor ignores limitations. Also used by some restaurants in favor of the colloquial "all you can eat or drink". ad litem to the lawsuit Legal phrase referring to a party appointed by a court to act in a lawsuit on behalf of another party who is deemed incapable of representing himself. An individual who acts in this capacity is called a guardian ad litem. ad locum (ad loc.) at the place Used to suggest looking for information about a term in the corresponding place in a cited work of reference. ad lucem to the light frequently used motto for educational institutions ad hoc ad kalendas graecas ad libitum (ad lib) ad maiorem Dei gloriam orad majorem Dei gloriam (AMDG) Motto of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Edward to the greater glory of God Elgar dedicated his oratorio The Dream of Gerontius "A.M.D.G." ad meliora towards better things Motto of St Patrick's College, Cavan, Ireland ad mortem to death Medical phrase serving as a synonym for death ad multos annos to many years Wish for a long life; similar to "many happy returns" ad nauseam to seasickness Or, "to the point of disgust". Sometimes used as a humorous alternative to ad infinitum. An argumentum ad nauseam is a logical fallacy whose erroneous proof is proffered by prolonged repetition of the argument, i. e., the argument is repeated so many times that persons are "sick of it". ad oculos to the eyes "obvious on sight" or "obvious to anyone that sees it" ad pedem litterae to the foot of the letter Thus, "exactly as it is written"; similar to the phrase "to the letter", meaning "to the last detail" ad perpetuam memoriam to the perpetual memory Generally precedes "of" and a person's name, and is used to wish for someone to be remembered long after death to the weight of all things More loosely, "considering everything's weight". The abbreviation was historically used by physicians and others to signify that the last prescribed ingredient is to weigh as much as all of the previously mentioned ones. ad quod damnum to whatever damage Meaning "according to the harm" or "in proportion to the harm". The phrase is used in tort law as a measure of damages inflicted, implying that a remedy, if one exists, ought to correspond specifically and only to the damage suffered (cf. damnum absque iniuria). ad referendum to be proposed [before the Loosely "subject to reference": provisionally Senate] approved, but still needing official approval. Not ad pondus omnium (ad pond om) (ad ref) the same as a referendum. ad rem to the matter "to the point", without digression ad sumus here we are Motto of the Brazilian Marine Corps ad susceptum perficiendum in order to achieve what has been undertaken Motto of the Association of Trust Schools ad terminum qui praeteriit for the term which has passed Legal phrase for a writ of entry ad terminum qui praeteriit ("for the term which has passed").[3] ad undas to the waves Equivalent to "to Hell" ad unum to one ad usum Delphini for the use of the Dauphin ad usum proprium (ad us. for one's own use Said of a work that has been expurgated of offensive or improper parts. The phrase originates from editions of Greek and Roman classics which King Louis XIV of France had censored for his heir apparent, the Dauphin. Also rarely "in usum Delphini" ("into the use of the Dauphin"). propr.) ad utrumque paratus prepared for either [alternative] Motto of Lund University, with the implied alternatives being the book (study) and the sword (defending the nation in war), and of the United States Marine Corps' III Marine Expeditionary Force ad valorem according to value Used in commerce to refer to ad valorem taxes, i. e., taxes based on the assessed value of real estate or personal property ad victoriam to victory More commonly translated "for victory", it was a battlecry of the Romans ad vitam aeternam to eternal life Also "to life everlasting"; a common Biblical phrase ad vitam aut culpam for life or until fault Phrase describing the term of a political office as ending upon the death of the officer or his commission of a sufficiently grave immorality and/or legal crime. An item to be added, especially as a supplement to a book. The plural is addenda. addendum thing to be added adaequatio intellectus et rei One of the classic definitions of "truth". When the correspondence of the mind mind has the same form as reality, we think truth. and reality Also found as adaequatio rei et intellectus. adaequatio intellectus nostri cum re conformity of our minds to the fact Phrase used in epistemology regarding the nature of understanding. adsum I am here Equivalent to "Present!" or "Here!" The opposite of absum ("I am absent"). adversus solem ne loquitor do not speak against the Sun Or, "do not argue what is obviously/manifestly incorrect". advocatus diaboli Devil's advocate Someone who, in the face of a specific argument, voices an argument that he does not necessarily accept, for the sake of argument and discovering the truth by testing the opponent's argument. Confer the term "arguendo". aegri somnia a sick man's dreams Horace, Ars Poetica, 7. Loosely, "troubled dreams". of age / aged Often abbreviated to "aetat.", or more frequently further to "aet."; meaning "of age _ [years]" or "aged _ [years]". E. g., "aetatis 36" denotes being "36 years old". of his age (followed by an ordinal number) Thus, "at the age of _ [years]". Appears on portraits, gravestones, monuments, et cetera. Usually preceded by anno (AAS), "in the year [of his age/life] _". Sometimes shortened to aetatis, aetat.", or even "aet. Frequently combined with Anno Domini, giving a date as both the theoretical age of Jesus Christ and the age of the decedent; e. g., Obiit anno Domini MDCXXXVIo (tricensimo sexto), [anno] aetatis suae XXVo (vicensimo quinto) ("he died in the 1636th year of the Lord, [being] the 25th [year] of his age[/life]"). aetatis aetatis suae a falsis principiis proficisci to set forth from false principles Legal phrase; Cicero, De Finibus, 4.53. affidavit he asserted Legal term from "fides" ("faith"), originating at least from Medieval Latin to denote a statement under oath. a fortiori from the stronger Loosely, "even more so" or "with even stronger reason". Often used to lead from a less certain proposition to a more evident corollary. age quod agis do what you are doing More often translated as "do well whatever you do". Literally translated, it means "do what you do"; figuratively it means "keep going, because you are inspired or dedicated to do so". This is the motto of several Roman Catholic schools. It was also used by Pope John XXIII in the sense of "do not be concerned with any other matter than the task in hand"; he was allaying worry of what would become of him in the future: his sense of "age quod agis" was "joy" regarding what is presently occurring and "detachment" from concern of the future. (Pope John XXIII, Journal of a Soul, pa...
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