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98136267 MNB-Style Contents FOREWORD V TOPIC 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1 STUDY UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STUDY UNIT 2: STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 13 STUDY UNIT 3: THE PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS 25 STUDY UNIT 4: EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT 39 STUDY UNIT 5: EMPLOYEE SELECTION 51 TOPIC 2: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILISATION 3 87 STUDY UNIT 6: ORGANISATIONAL SOCIALISATION 89 STUDY UNIT 7: EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 98 STUDY UNIT 8: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS 110 STUDY UNIT 9: CAREER MANAGEMENT IN ORGANISATIONS 138 STUDY UNIT 10: JOB EVALUATION SYSTEMS 150 TOPIC 3: MANAGING COMPENSATION SYSTEMS AND EMPLOYMENT
STUDY UNIT 11: COMPENSATION SYSTEMS AND EMPLOYEE BENEFITS 163 STUDY UNIT 12: EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM 177 STUDY UNIT 13: MANAGING LABOUR TURNOVER 191 STUDY UNIT 14: SOUTH AFRICAN LABOUR LAW 201 TOPIC 4: HUMAN RELATIONS IN MODERN ORGANISATIONS 233 STUDY UNIT 15: UNDERSTANDING THE SELF-CONCEPT 235 STUDY UNIT 16: THE DYNAMICS OF SELF-DISCLOSURE IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS 246 STUDY UNIT 17: INTERPERSONAL TRUST 259 STUDY UNIT 18: COMMUNICATION FOR INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS 266 (iii) STUDY UNIT 19: INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR AND EXPRESSION OF FEELINGS
STUDY UNIT 20: RESOLVING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT 287 STUDY UNIT 21: WORKPLACE STRESS MANAGEMENT 296 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 304 REFERENCES 306 (iv) Foreword
It is a great pleasure to welcome you to this exciting course, The Personnel Function /
Human Resource Management I / Human Relations. This course falls within the field of
human resource management (HRM), which, according to the online Encyclopaedia of
Business (2006), ``entails planning, implementing, and managing recruitment, as well
as selection, training, career, and organizational development initiatives within an
The goal of HRM is to maximize the productivity of an organization by
optimizing the effectiveness of its employees while simultaneously improving the
work life of employees and treating employees as valuable resources.
Consequently, HRM encompasses efforts to promote personal development,
employee satisfaction, and compliance with employment-related laws
(Encyclopaedia of Business, 2006).
To achieve equilibrium between employer and employee goals and needs, this course
will introduce you to the general functions or activities that human resource
practitioners are responsible for in various organisations. These functions include
human resource acquisition, human resource development and utilisation, compensation and maintenance as well as human relations in organisations. The Encyclopaedia of
Business (2006) describes the first four as follows:
Ð Acquisition entails the hiring of workers most likely to help a company attain its
The development function encompasses the training of workers to perform their
tasks in accordance with company strategy. This activity also involves company
efforts to control and change employee behaviour via reviews, appraisals,
incentives, and discipline.
Compensation covers the payment of employees for their services.
Maintenance requires structuring labor relations Ð the interaction between a
company's management and its unionised employees Ð and ensuring compliance
with government regulations and labour laws. Finally, the human relations function includes the assessment of human interaction and
promotion of good interpersonal relationships within the organisation. Purpose of this course
The purpose of this course is to introduce line managers to the human resource
functions and processes in order to enhance their grounding in current HR
practices, people management practices, and labour laws that impact on the
effective discharge of line management duties, etc.
(v) Icons used in this study guide
The following icons are used throughout this study guide:
The learning outcomes icon indicates what you should be able to achieve
after you have worked through the study guide.
The assessment icon indicates the sections of the study guide where you
must evaluate yourself to determine whether you have mastered the learning
outcomes set for each study unit.
The key concepts icon draws your attention to certain keywords or
concepts that you will come across in the topic or study unit.
The activity icon refers to activities that you must do in order to develop a
deeper understanding of the learning material. The activities will help you to
understand the study guide and assist you to make mind maps or summaries
that you can use in your preparation for the examination. Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
This course is at NQF Level 5 and is based on the following learning outcomes and
assessment criteria: Learning outcomes
A learning outcome is a statement indicating the end result for a learner following a
learning activity, usually stated in terms of what a person can observe the learner do
at the end of a learning activity. Therefore, after completing this course, you should
be able to do the following:
Ð Understand and analyse the process of human resource planning in organisations
Ð Conduct job analysis using different techniques with guidance
Ð Design, implement and evaluate a recruitment programme with guidance
Ð Design, implement and evaluate a selection programme with guidance
Ð Plan, implement and evaluate an employee induction programme with guidance
Ð Facilitate and evaluate the training process
Ð Implement and evaluate the performance management programme with
Ð Conduct career guidance and counselling of others with guidance
Ð Conduct job evaluation using different techniques with guidance
Ð Implement and evaluate the compensation management programme with
Ð Manage and analyse the cost of absenteeism and labour turnover with guidance
Ð Understand yourself and others and manage your and others' disclosure in
interpersonal contacts (vi) Ð Communicate effectively with others and manage the communication process
taking into account the various steps
Ð Express your feelings and understand the feelings of others in interpersonal
Ð Understand and solve conflict situations using diverse techniques
Ð Understand and manage stress using various techniques Assessment criteria
An assessment criterion is a standard used for assessing the achievement of
learning outcomes and defining the complexity of learning. Assessment
criteria specify the standard expected when learning outcomes are assessed.
Therefore, in this course, your ability to do the following will be assessed:
Ð Demonstrate appropriate knowledge of strategic planning and human
resource planning processes when conducting human resource planning.
Ð Apply appropriate techniques to conduct job analysis in a simulated
Ð Implement recruitment and selection programmes appropriately and
effectively in line with the relevant government prescripts and labour laws
Ð Plan and implement a simulated induction programme according to the
Ð Select appropriate theories and principles of adult learning and use them
in the design and delivery of learning interventions.
Ð Select appropriate methodologies and use them when assessing
employees' performance in accordance with a simulated organisational
performance management framework.
Ð Effectively demonstrate knowledge of career planning, career guidance
and counselling for application in the real organisation.
Ð Select and implement appropriate techniques when conducting job
Ð Demonstrate an understanding of various compensation models and
benefits plans for application in the real organisation.
Ð Demonstrate knowledge of costing absenteeism and labour turnover in a
simulated case problem.
Ð Reflect knowledge of self-disclosure management and manage others'
disclosures in line with ethical guidelines of privacy and confidentiality.
Ð Communicate and demonstrate understanding of the communication
model through completing assignments and projects.
Ð Effectively demonstrate understanding of challenges of interpersonal
relations in a simulated organisational context.
Ð Demonstrate knowledge of conflict resolution and stress management
techniques as part of employee wellness and relationship management in
a simulated case situation.
To master the content of this course and succeed in the examination, you must study
regularly and complete all the activities and self-assessment questions.
Make every effort to answer the self-assessment questions in as detailed a way as
possible. This will help you to assess how well you have mastered the learning
(vii) outcomes of the study units concerned. The questions for self-assessment are based on
the learning outcomes listed at the beginning of each study unit, and the learning
outcomes are related to possible examination questions. The questions do not
necessarily apply to a specific study unit but may test your ability to integrate the
content of different parts of the study guide.
Take your time in answering the questions, and if you have difficulty, do not give up Ð,
page back and study the relevant sections carefully again. If you still have problems, do
not hesitate to contact us. Link to other courses
This course is part of the National Diploma in Management. While the other courses
deal with elements of the broader human resource development function, such as
advanced management of training, organisational development and research
methodology, in this course we will focus on general human resource management
activities and principles.
The course forms an integral part of the broader human resource development
programme. It therefore builds on and supports the strategic human resource
development focus areas that have already been covered in other courses, such as
management of training, labour relations, personnel management, organisational
development, organisational behaviour, etc. Prescribed and recommended books
There is no prescribed book for this course. However, the following books are
recommended to help you achieve the learning outcomes for this course:
Cascio, W.F. 2006. Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits. 7th edition. New York:
Grobler, P.A., WaÈrnich, S., Carrell, M.R., Elbert, N.F. & Hatfield, R.D. 2006. Human resource management in South
Africa. 3rd edition. London: Thomson Learning.
Johnson, D.W. 2006. Reaching out: Interpersonal effectiveness and self-actualisation. 9th edition. New York: Allyn and
Reece, B.L. & Brandt, R. 2005. Effective human relations in organizations. 10th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Note that it is very important for you to consult other sources of
knowledge in order to enhance and enrich your learning. How to use this study guide
The main purpose of this study guide is to help you grasp the key elements of human
resource management so that you will be able to apply them in the workplace
environment. The content of this guide is based on best practices in the field of HRM,
and your challenge is to internalise these best practices and implement them in your
applicable environment. We would like to encourage you to engage actively with the
learning material by completing all the learning activities provided. To help you with the
learning process, we have structured this course into four broad topics.
(viii) Each of these topics is made up of study units which are structured in the following
Ð An outline of the contents of the study unit
Learning outcomes that you should have achieved after working through the
A brief introduction to provide you with background on the particular section
Learning activities that will help you to master the subject matter
Self-assessment questions to help you to achieve the learning outcomes of the
particular study unit Therefore this study guide should help you to progress steadily through the learning
material of this course. To this end we will expect you to apply certain principles and
practices of HRM to fictitious as well as real life situations. We also encourage you to
relate the content of this course to a practical working environment. Should you not be
employed in a supervisory/managerial position or be responsible for any aspect of
HRM in your organisation, we suggest that you liaise with the HR manager or
practitioner to provide you with advice and relevant supporting documents that may
If you are unemployed, we suggest that you liaise with an HR practitioner in any
organisation of your choice to enhance your understanding of the application of the HR
processes that are covered in this course. However, your ultimate success in this course
will depend largely on your own ability to achieve the learning outcomes and meet the
assessment criteria. We therefore suggest that you take full responsibility for
empowering yourself in this regard. Framework of this course
If you look at the table of contents, you will notice that this study guide is divided into
four topics. Each topic has several study units. Each study unit has several learning
outcomes that provide the overall focus for that particular unit.
The following table provides an overview of the different topics and study units covered
in this guide:
Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Fundamentals of H u m a n re s o u rc e Managing compen- Human relations in
h u m a n r e s o u r c e development and sation systems and modern organisamanagement
employment rela- tions
Study unit 1:
Study unit 6:
Study unit 11:
Study unit 15:
Introduction to human Organisational sociali- Compensation systems Understanding the selfresource management sation
and employee benefits concept
Study unit 2:
Study unit 7:
Study unit 12:
Strategic human re- Employee training and Employee absenteeism
source planning (ix) Study unit 16:
The dynamics of selfdisclosure in interpersonal relations Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Fundamentals of
management Human resource
utilisation Managing compensation systems and
employment relations Human relations in
modern organisations Study unit 3:
Process of job analysis Study unit 8:
Study unit 13:
Study unit 17:
Performance manage- Managing labour turn- Interpersonal trust
over Study unit 4:
Employee recruitment Study unit 9:
Study unit 14:
Study unit 18:
Career management in South African labour Communication prolaw
cess and interpersonal
relations Study unit 5:
Employee selection Study unit 10:
Job evaluation systems Study unit 19:
and expression of feelings
Study unit 20:
Study unit 21:
Workplace stress management Composition of the learning material
You will receive the first tutorial letter, numbered 101, containing the contact information
of the lecturers, the guidelines for completing your assignments and preparing for the
examination, compulsory assignments and self-assessment assignments. This tutorial letter
may not be readily despatched to you during the registration process but may be posted
later. Use this tutorial letter in conjunction with this study guide.
After you have submitted the compulsory assignment 02, a second tutorial letter, 201,
will be despatched to you in order to provide feedback on your compulsory
assignments. Study the feedback provided in this tutorial letter in order to assess your
understanding of the assignment questions.
Unisa will communicate further with you about this course when necessary. The study process
Tutorial Letter 101 and this study guide will direct you on how to approach the
learning process and other resources. It is important for you, as a distance learner, to
know whom to contact for academic and administrative matters, and how to manage
your time effectively.
As indicated before, this study guide will enable you to understand the theory in each
topic and study unit. Remember that only once you understand something can you
apply it. We suggest, therefore, that you always use this guide even when working
through the recommended books.
In your years of study, you have probably worked out what kinds of study technique
work for you. However, we would like to emphasise that the best way to learn is not
(x) through memorising the learning material but rather through engaging actively with it
and applying its content to the work environment. This study guide has been written in
a practical and user-friendly manner so that you are continuously encouraged to relate
your learning to the work environment. Because this course is based on best standards
in the field of HRM, we recommend that you do the following in order to succeed:
Ð Work actively through the learning material.
Work continuously throughout the year.
Talk to specialists or colleagues working in this field or other learners enrolled for
Contact the lecturers responsible for this course if you require additional learner
support relating to the outcomes or content of the course.
Complete all the activities and assignments.
Focus on applying what you have learned in the work environment.
Visit all the recommended websites to update your knowledge with the latest
information on a particular topic.
Prepare thoroughly for the examination and start well in advance. Our expectations of you
In order for you as a learner to benefit from this course, we expect you to do the
Ð Study the prescribed tutorial matter conscientiously according to the guidelines
and sequence provided.
Relate what you are learning to your work situation. If you are unemployed, seek
opportunities to discuss what you are learning with a professional employed in the
HRM field and to relate it to the real working environment.
Plan your studies according to the time available.
Use the study guide according to the learning guidelines provided. What you can expect from Unisa
As a distance education learner, you will need a great deal of support from UNISA and
your lecturer. However, for this learning process to take place effectively, it is your
responsibility to be at the forefront. You have to be actively engaged and committed to
the process. You can expect us to do the following:
Ð Ð We will provide you with up-to-date and relevant learning material which is
regularly benchmarked against similar local and international programmes.
We will keep the learning materials in line with the needs of industry and
commerce by consulting with professional bodies and with industry leaders and
We will assist you as a learner by giving you the opportunity to develop
competencies and skills at a certain level. The learning outcomes correspond with
the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) Level 5. You will be assessed with
due regard for the level descriptors of the NQF.
We will support you whenever you require assistance. You may contact your
lecturer to discuss something or to make personal appointments. We know it is
quite challenging to study through distance education rather than at a residential
university. You can contact us by phone or via e-mail or the Internet (myUnisa).
Ð We will provide you with clear indications of what we expect from you in terms of
We will give you timely feedback on assignments. Conclusion
In conclusion, we believe that once you have read all of the above, you should be able
to work through this study guide with a clear understanding of what is required of you
and of us. If you work through this study guide properly, you should succeed with your
Best wishes, and enjoy this very interesting course!
M C Tshilongamulenzhe, Lecturer
The Personnel Function / Human Resource Management I /
(PEF131-V / MHB101-Q / HUM161-Q)
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