17-8652_GSR2018_FullReport_web_final_.pdf - RENEWABLES 2018 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT A comprehensive annual overview of the state of renewable energy 2018

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Unformatted text preview: RENEWABLES 2018 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT A comprehensive annual overview of the state of renewable energy. 2018 RENEWABLES 2018 ·GLOBAL GLOBALSTATUS STATUSREPORT REPORT REN21 MEMBERS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS NGOS Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE) American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE) Associação Portuguesa de Energias Renováveis (APREN) Association for Renewable Energy of Lusophone Countries (ALER) Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association (CREIA) Clean Energy Council (CEC) European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF) Global Off-Grid Lighting Association (GOGLA) Global Solar Council (GSC) Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) Indian Renewable Energy Federation (IREF) International Geothermal Association (IGA) International Hydropower Association (IHA) Renewable Energy Solutions for the Mediterranean (RES4MED) World Bioenergy Association (WBA) World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) Asian Development Bank (ADB) Climate Action Network International (CAN-I) MEMBERS AT LARGE NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS SCIENCE AND ACADEMIA Michael Eckhart Afghanistan Brazil Denmark Germany India Norway South Africa Spain United Arab Emirates United States of America Fundación Bariloche (FB) Mohamed El-Ashry David Hales Kirsty Hamilton Peter Rae Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) European Commission (EC) Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) Fundación Energías Renovables (FER) Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC) Global Environment Facility (GEF) Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (GFSE) International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenpeace International International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, South Asia International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP) Mali Folkecenter (MFC) Partnership for Sustainable Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT) Renewable Energy Institute (REI) United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE) World Bank (WB) World Future Council (WFC) World Resources Institute (WRI) World Wildlife Fund (WWF) International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) International Solar Energy Society (ISES) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) CHAIR EXECUTIVE SECRETARY Arthouros Zervos National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) Rana Adib REN21 COMMUNIT Y REN21 is a multi-stakeholder network that is built on an international community of over 900 experts from governments, inter-governmental organisations, industry associations, non-governmental organisations, and science and academia. It grows from year to year and represents an increasing diversity of sectors. REN21 provides a platform for this wide-ranging community to exchange information and ideas, to learn from each other and to collectively build the renewable energy future. This network enables the REN21 Secretariat, among other things, to produce its annual flagship publication, the Renewables Global Status Report (GSR). The report is a truly collaborative effort where the contributors and peer reviewers work alongside an international authoring team and the REN21 Secretariat. REN21 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN GSR: 60% new experts in the community every year 40% have been involved at least twice Over 900 experts internationally 400 experts actively involved in 2018 edition 3 RENEWABLES 2018 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY NETWORK FOR THE 21 st CENTURY REN21 PRODUCTS REN21 is the global renewable energy policy multistakeholder network that connects a wide range of key actors. REN21’s goal is to facilitate knowledge exchange, policy development and joint action towards a rapid global transition to renewable energy. REN21 brings together governments, non- governmental organisations, research and academic institutions, international organisations and industry to learn from one another and build on successes that advance renewable energy. To assist policy decisionmaking, REN21 provides high-quality information, Global Status Report: yearly publication since 2005 catalyses discussion and debate, and supports the development of thematic networks. Bridging and building the energy future. RENEWABLES GLOBAL STATUS REPORT (GSR) REN21 facilitates the collection of com- First released in 2005, REN21's Renewables Global prehensive and timely information on Status Report (GSR) has grown to become a truly collaborative effort, drawing on an international renewable energy. This information network of over 900 authors, contributors and reflects diverse viewpoints from both reviewers. Today it is the most frequently referenced private and public sector actors, serving report on renewable energy market, industry and to dispel myths about renewable energy policy trends. and to catalyse policy change. It does this through six product lines: REN21 publications: First GSR published 2004 REN21 events: 4 Renewables 2004, Bonn 2005 2006 BIREC, Beijing International Renewable Energy Conference 2007 2008 Chinese Renewable Energy Status Report Indian Renewable Energy Status Report Renewables Interactive Map Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies 2009 2010 2011 WIREC, Washington International Renewable Energy Conference DIREC, Delhi International Renewable Energy Conference 2012 Regional Status Reports Global Futures Reports Thematic Reports REN21 Renewables Academy International Renewable Energy Conferences REGIONAL STATUS REPORTS THEMATIC REPORTS RENEWABLES ACADEMY These Each report covers a specific The renewable energy developments topic related to renewable energy Academy provides an opportu- of a particular region; their pro- in detail. Examples of reports nity for lively exchange among The International Renewable duction also supports regional covered in this series include data collection processes and the reports detail the informed decision making. GLOBAL FUTURES REPORTS (GFR) REN21 Renewables INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CONFERENCES (IREC) the growing community of REN21 Energy Conference (IREC) is a Toolkit, contributors. It of fers a venue high-level political conference Renewable Energy Tenders and to brainstorm on future-orien- series. Dedicated exclusively to Community [Em]power[ment] and tated policy solutions and allows the renewable energy sector, Renewables Energy Policies in participants to actively contribute the biennial IREC is hosted a Time of Transition. on issues central to a renewable by a national government and energy transition. convened by REN21. Mini-grid Policy REN21 produces reports that illustrate the credible possibilities for the future of renewables within particular thematic areas. Global Futures Report Mini-grid Policy Toolkit Renewables Interactive Map revamp EAC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report 100% Renewables Global Futures Report UNECE Renewable Energy Status Report Renewable Energy Tenders and Community [Em]Power[ment] SADC and UNECE Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Reports Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition MENA Renewable Energy Status Report ECOWAS Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 ADIREC, Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference First REN21 Renewables Academy, Bonn SAIREC, South Africa International Renewable Energy Conference First GSR Microsite MEXIREC, Mexico International Renewable Energy Conference Second REN21 Renewables Academy, Bonn SADC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report 5 RENEWABLES 2018 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS GSR 2018 03 MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Bioenergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Geothermal Power and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Renewable Energy Indicators 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Ocean Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Top 5 Countries Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 01 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Solar Thermal Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 GLOBAL OVERVIEW Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Global Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 02 04 DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLES FOR ENERGY ACCESS Distributed Renewables for Energy Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Overview of Energy Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Technologies and Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 POLICY LANDSCAPE Investment and Financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Policy Landscape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Business Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Policy Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 International Initiatives and Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Integrating Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Sector Coupling and System-Wide Transformation . . . . . . . 62 05 INVESTMENT FLOWS Investment Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Investment by Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Investment by Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Investment by Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Renewable Energy Investment in Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Sources of Investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 6 06 08 FEATURE: ENERGY SYSTEMS INTEGRATION AND ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATE SOURCING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Energy Systems Integration and Enabling Technologies . . . 149 Feature: Corporate Sourcing of Renewable Energy . . . . . . . 173 Challenges of Energy Systems Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 How Companies Source Renewable Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Integrating Variable Renewable Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Main Industries Sourcing Renewable Electricity . . . . . . . . . . 176 Technologies for Systems Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Policy Frameworks to Enable Corporate Sourcing of Renewables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Capacity Building Through Knowledge Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Electric Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 07 Reference Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Methodological Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Energy Units and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Electricity Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Endnotes: see full version online at Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 REPORT CITATION DISCLAIMER: REN21. 2018. Renewables 2018 Global Status Report REN21 releases issue papers and reports to emphasise the importance of renewable energy and to generate discussion on issues central to the promotion of renewable energy. While REN21 papers and reports have benefited from the considerations and input from the REN21 community, they do not necessarily represent a consensus among network participants on any given point. Although the information given in this report is the best available to the authors at the time, REN21 and its participants cannot be held liable for its accuracy and correctness. (Paris: REN21 Secretariat). ISBN 978-3-9818911-3-3 The designations employed and the presentation of material in the maps in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever concerning the legal status of any region, country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, and is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers or boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. 7 RENEWABLES 2018 GLOBAL STATUS REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS GSR 2018 TABLES Table 1 SIDEBARS Estimated Direct and Indirect Jobs in Renewable Energy, by Country and Technology, 2016-2017 . 47 Table 2 Renewable Energy Support Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table 3 Status of Renewable Electricity Generating Technologies, Costs and Capacity Factors, 2017. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Sidebar 1 Jobs in Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Sidebar 2 Renewable Electricity Generation Costs, 2017. . . 119 Sidebar 3 Digitalisation of Energy Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Table 4 Overview of Policy Measures That Support Various Corporate Sourcing Options. . . . . . . . . . 177 REFERENCE TABLES Table R1 Global Renewable Energy Capacity and Biofuel Production, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Table R15 Biofuels Global Production, Top 15 Countries and EU-28, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Table R2 Renewable Power Capacity, World and Top Regions/Countries, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Table R16 Geothermal Power Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . 207 Table R3 Renewable Energy Targets, Share of Primary or Final Energy and Progress, End-2015 . . . . 180 Table R17 Hydropower Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . 208 Table R4 Renewable Energy Targets, TechnologySpecific Share of Primary or Final Energy . . 183 Table R18 Solar PV Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2007-2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Table R5 Renewable Heating and Cooling Targets and Progress, End-2016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Table R19 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) Global Capacity and Additions, 2017 . . . . . . . 210 Table R6 Renewable Transport Targets and Progress, End-2016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Table R20 Solar Water Heating Collectors Total Capacity End-2016 and Newly Installed Capacity 2017, Top 20 Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Table R7 Renewable Transport Mandates at the National/State/Provincial Levels, End-2017 . 187 Table R8 Renewable Power Targets, Share of Electricity Generation and Progress, End-2016 . . . . . . . . 189 Table R9 Renewable Power Targets, TechnologySpecific Share of Electricity Generation . . . . 192 Table R10 Renewable Power Targets for Specific Amount of Installed Capacity or Generation . . . . . . . . 193 Table R11 Renewable Heating and Cooling Policies, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Table R12 Feed-in Electricity Policies, Cumulative Number of Countries/States/Provinces and 2017 Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Table R13 Renewable Power Tenders at the National/State/Provincial Levels, 2017 . . . . . 201 Table R14 Renewable Energy Targets, Selected City and Local Examples . . . . . . . . . 202 8 Table R21 Wind Power Global Capacity and Additions, Top 10 Countries, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . 212 Table R22 Electricity Access by Region and Country, 2016 and Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Table R23 Population Without Access to Clean Cooking by Region and Country, 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Table R24 Programmes Furthering Energy Access, Selected Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Table R25 International Networks Furthering Energy Access, Selected Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Table R26 Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment, 2007-2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Estimated Renewable Share of Total Final Energy Consumption, 2016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Growth in Global Renewable Energy Compared to Total Final Energy Consumption, 2005-2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Renewable Energy in Total Final Energy Consumption, by Sector, 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Carbon Pricing Policies, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Global Renewable Power Capacity, 2007-2017 . 41 Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End-2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Renewable Power Capacities in World, EU-28, and Top 6 Countries, 2017 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Share of Electricity Generation from Variable Renewable Energy, Top 10 Countries, 2017 . . . . 43 Jobs in Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Number of Countries with Renewable Energy Regulatory Policies, by Sector, 2004-2017 . . . . . . 51 National Sector-Specific Targets for Share of Renewable Energy, by a Specific Year, by Sector, in Place at End-2017 . ....
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