Chapter 8 CARE OF PATIENTS WITH CANCER 1
Learning Objectives Theory 1. Analyze organization of neoplastic (abnormal tissue) growth. 2. Identify at least five factors that may contribute to the development of a malignancy. 3. List at least four practices that can contribute to prevention and early detection of cancers. 4. Include the recommendations of the American Cancer Society for routine checkups and detection of cancers into patient education. 5. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the various treatments available for cancer. 6. Illustrate the major problems for a patient who is coping with side effects of radiation or chemotherapy for cancer and state the appropriate nursing interventions. 7. Apply knowledge of the stages of the grieving process experienced by the dying cancer to patient’s coping level. Clinical Practice 8. Devise an individual plan of care for the patient receiving chemotherapy. 9. Formulate a teaching plan for the patient who has bone marrow suppression from cancer treatment. 10. Institute nursing interventions to help the patient cope with the common problems of cancer and its treatment. 11. Use appropriate nursing interventions to help patients and families deal with the psychosocial effects of cancer and its treatment. 12. Employ nursing interventions to help the cancer patient cope with death and dying. 2
3 Detected early the 5 year survival rate would be 95%
Cancer Statitics 40% of patients today will be alive in 5 years after ANY cancer diagnosis – a 50% improvement since 1975 Excluding basal and squamous cell cancer 1.6 million cases will be diagnosed in 2015 1 million more will have squamous or basal cell cancer in 2015 Cancer accounts for 1 in 4 deaths in the US per year
Physiology of Cancer Neoplasm – new tissue growth that is harmful to body Benign – encapsulated preventing the release or spread of cells Can these prevent function of organs? Malignant – uncontrolled growth that can lead to death These do not look like or behave like normal cells Changes the cells DNA and replicates itself (the cancer cells) Metastasis- when malignant cell invade other tissues They demand the nutrients and supply of nourishment available for normal cells Don’t have to matastisis Weight loss!! 5
6 Normal Cells versus Malignant Cells disorganized, altered DNA, Invasion of nearby tissue, and travel through the body
7 Classification of Tumors Organs or tissues from which they first began -OMA is the suffix that means (swelling or collection of cells) or tumor Main groups of cancers: Sarcomas Bone, muscle, connective tissue Carcinomas Epithelial tissues (organs/skin) Leukemias and lymphomas blood Melanomas Pigment cells of skin
Metastasis Moving of malignant cells to another site: Blood and body fluids Not usually through tissues Entering a body cavity Surgery from gloves or instruments Lymphatic system
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- Fall '19