Chapter 17The Cardiovascular System
Learning ObjectivesTheory1. Describe the normal anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.2. Discuss the risk factors and incidence of cardiovascular disease.3. Explain ways to modify risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease.4. State ways in which nurses can contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.5. Describe the diagnostic tests, specific techniques, and procedures for assessing the cardiovascular system.6. Identify three likely nursing diagnoses for patients who have common problems of cardiovascular disease and list the expected outcomes and appropriate nursing interventions for each.7. Teach patients about the more common diagnostic tests and procedures to diagnose and evaluate cardiovascular diseases.8. Assist patients to form plans to modify cardiovascular disease risk factors.9. Identify cardiovascular abnormalities clinically in assigned patients.Clinical Practice
StatisticsCardiovascular disease affects 1 in 4 AmericansMore than 600,000 people die in US from cardiovascular problems each yearResponsible for the largest portion of Medicare funds each yearMore women than men die each year from heart diseaseDiabetes, metabolic syndrome, stress, smoking (women are at higher risk)
Structures and Functions of the Heart Must understand structures and normal functions of heart and blood vesselsHeart and vascular system provide body with nutrients and oxygen. Transports metabolic wastes from lungs and kidneys
Structures and functionsEpicardium – outer layerMyocardium – Middle layer (functioning layer of heart)Endocardium – Inner surface of heart chambersPericardium: surrounds the heartPericardial space: Contains a thin layer of fluid (30 to 50 mL)Provides a barrier to infectionHelps prevent overfilling of the heartSee/know pgs 368 - 372
What Causes the Heart to Contract and Pump Blood?
Cardiac Cycle Contraction of the muscle (systole) and relaxation of the muscle (diastole)Cardiac output–5L blood q minute (2000 gallons/day!)–Influenced by:–Heart rate–Venous return–Strength of contraction–Resistance to the ejection of the blood (pressure in the arterial system)
Ejection Fraction Percentage of blood that is ejected from the heart during systoleNormal ejection fraction (EF): 50% to 70%Stroke volume equals the amount of blood pumped out of the heart each beatCardiac output Remember CO = HR x SV (for one full minute)Decreased EF causes backup of blood into pulmonary vessels
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- Fall '19
- See, Endocardium