LPN 132 Chapter 21 Student.pptx - CHAPTER 21 The Neurologic System LEARNING OBJECTIVES Theory 1 Define the vocabulary particular to problems of the

LPN 132 Chapter 21 Student.pptx - CHAPTER 21 The Neurologic...

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CHAPTER 21 The Neurologic System
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES Theory 1. Define the vocabulary particular to problems of the nervous system. 2. Discuss the differences in the action of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. 3. Identify four specific ways in which a nurse can contribute to preventing neurologic disorders. 4. Provide rational for the appropriate preparation and postprocedure care for patients undergoing lumbar puncture (spinal tap), electroencephalography, and radiologic studies of the brain and cerebral vessels. 5. Become familiar with the techniques used for assessment of the nervous system. 6. Compare and contrast the various signs and symptoms of the common problems experienced by patients with nervous system disorders. Clinical Practice 7. Gather a pertinent history for a patient with a nervous system problem. 8. Demonstrate a “neuro check.” 9. Score the neurologic status of a patient with a nervous system disorder according to the Glasgow Coma Scale.
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HOW IS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ORGANIZED? Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Sensory organs: eyes, ears, taste buds, touch receptors 12 pairs of cranial nerves (KNOW 1 ST 6) 31 pairs of spinal nerves Subdivided into afferent (carries impulses to CNS) and efferent (carries impulses away from CNS) Sympathetic nerves : fight or flight (mobilize energy) Parasympathetic nerves : conserve and restore energy
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RE 21-4
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HOW DO NERVE IMPULSES OCCUR?
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CONDUCTION OF IMPULSES Impulses travel 2 ways In a reflex arc: going to the spinal cord and traveling back to an effector site Travel along nerve pathways to the brain to be interpreted After being interpreted brain sends message through spinal cord or cranial nerves (PNS) for action. Many axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath allowing faster conduction of nerve impulses. When myelin is destroyed, impulse transmission slowed (MS)
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CNS PROTECTION Bones of the skull and the vertebral column Meninges (pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater)
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