LPN 132 Chapter 24 Student.pptx - Chapter 24 Care of Patients with Degenerative Neurologic Disorders Learning Objectives Theory Clinical Practice

LPN 132 Chapter 24 Student.pptx - Chapter 24 Care of...

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Chapter 24 Care of Patients with Degenerative Neurologic Disorders
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Learning Objectives Theory 1. Compare and contrast the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease and myasthenia gravis. 2.Examine treatments for Parkinson’s disease. 3.Discuss the nursing care needed for the patient with Parkinson’s disease. 4.Explain why multiple sclerosis might be difficult to diagnose. 5. Illustrate the differences between Huntington disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 6. Recognize the signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis. 7. Compare and contrast the complications of Parkinson disease with those of myasthenia gravis. Clinical Practice 8. Teach a newly diagnosed patient about the medications for Parkinson’s disease. 9.Teach a patient about the diagnostic tests that might be ordered if multiple sclerosis is suspected. 10. Write a nursing care plan for the myasthenia gravis patient who is hospitalized with a respiratory infection. 11. Summarize a home care plan for a patient with multiple sclerosis. 12. Choose a nursing care plan for a patient with Guillain-Barre syndrom
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Parkinson’s Disease Etiology Degeneration of the dopamine-producing neurons Affects more men than women Repeated head trauma, genetics, environment especially pesticide and herbicide exposure Pathophysiology Affects part of brain that controls balance and coordination (extrapyramidal system) Decreased dopamine and increased acetylcholine Dopamine normally inhibits the acetylcholine excitatory messages. With decreased amounts, the excessive stimulation from Acetylcholine prevents a person from controlling or initiating voluntary movements
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Parkinson’s Disease Signs and symptoms: Onset is usually gradual, but TRIAD of symptoms Does not affect intellect Tremor : Occurs when body @ rest, decreases when body is active, absent when sleeping. “Pill rolling” Bradykinesia : slow movement and speech produce poor body balance, shuffling gait, difficulty moving Rigidity : Postural changes affecting balance Flat affect Speech becomes slow and monotone Drooling Mood disturbances (depression)
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Figure 24-2
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Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis: Characteristic symptoms MRI – to rule out other possible neurologic disease SPECT scans – shows decreased dopamine uptake Treatment: Drug therapy: Anticholinergics, dopamine agonists, MAOIs (Safety Alert pg 555 next slide) These meds increase dopamine available to brain Levodopa + Carbidopa = Sinemet Physical therapy Considerable emotional support Surgical options becoming more available
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Safety Alert pg 553: Caution When
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