[Omkar_(eds.)]_Industrial_Entomology(z-lib.org).pdf - Omkar...

This preview shows page 1 out of 469 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 469 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Omkar Editor Industrial Entomology Industrial Entomology Omkar Editor Industrial Entomology Editor Omkar Department of Zoology University of Lucknow Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India ISBN 978-981-10-3303-2    ISBN 978-981-10-3304-9 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-3304-9 Library of Congress Control Number: 2017932072 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore Preface While dealing with certain topics in entomology to undergraduate and postgraduate students of zoology over the last three decades, I realized a dearth of information on certain topics indicating a strong need of a specialized book dealing with those topics. In this way, the title Industrial Entomology came into existence in my mind. The term industrial entomology refers to the use of insects, their activities, or products on industrial scale for the human welfare. In the same context, I contacted with certain real experts for the selected topics covered under the umbrella of industrial entomology. The book starts with a brief write up on industrial entomology, followed by honey bee diversity, bee keeping, diseases, and natural enemies of honey bees; lac insects, lac cultivation, and lac culture; mulberry sericulture; diseases and natural enemies of Bombyx mori; tropical tasar culture; temperate tasar culture; ericulture and muga sericulture; insect pollinators, insects as food, and insect pharmaceuticals; and mass production of natural enemies for biocontrol of insect pests. To my knowledge, there is no such book dealing with these specialized topics by the real experts. I am sure that the book will be quite useful in studies not only to undergraduate and postgraduate students but to all those interested in practicing these areas besides the policy planners. I am thankful to all the contributors and subject experts including Professors M.R. Srinivasan, D.D. Barsagade, and M.S. Khan and Drs. Pradyumn Kumar, K.K. Sharma, P. Kumar, T.P.S. Chauhan, R.K. Goel, Mukesk Tayal, Babulal, A.A. Siddiqui, Bijoy K. Singh, Geetanjali Mishra, and Sunita Yadav, among others, from the inner core of my heart for instantly agreeing to my proposal and sparing time from their routine and hectic schedule to finalize and submit the chapters assigned to them within the time frame. I am especially thankful to my research team consisting of Dr. Geetanjali Mishra (associate professor), M/S. Shashwat Singh, Desh Deepak Chaudhary, Garima Pandey, Swati Saxena, Apoorva Shandilya, Priya Singh, and Chandani Verma for continued support during this venture. I greatly appreciate the last few weeks’ support from Dr. Geetanjali Mishra in finalizing this book. v vi Preface I am also thankful to my wife, Mrs. Kusum Upadhyay, for her encouragements and silent sacrifice during the entire course of this project. Thanks are also due to Dr. Mamta Kapila, Ms. Manjusha Nalamolu, Mr. Raman Shukla, and Mr. Joseph Daniel from Springer Group for motivating me and also for keeping me alert from time to time, thus helping me in completing this book in time. Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Omkar Contents 1 An Introduction to Industrial Entomology������������������������������������������������  1 Omkar 2 Honeybee: Diversity, Castes and Life Cycle����������������������������������������������  5 Sunita Yadav, Yogesh Kumar, and Babul Lal Jat 3 Beekeeping in India������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  35 M. Kishan Tej, R. Aruna, Geetanjali Mishra, and M.R. Srinivasan 4 Diseases and Enemies of Honeybees��������������������������������������������������������  67 Sunita Yadav and H.D. Kaushik 5 Lac Culture����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  109 Y.D. Mishra and P. Kumar 6 Lac Insects and Host Plants��������������������������������������������������������������������  157 K.K. Sharma 7 Lac Crop Harvesting and Processing����������������������������������������������������  181 K.K. Sharma 8 Mulberry Sericulture������������������������������������������������������������������������������  197 T.P.S. Chauhan and Mukesh K. Tayal 9 Silkworm Diseases and Pests������������������������������������������������������������������  265 Mukesh K. Tayal and T.P.S. Chauhan 10 Tropical Tasar Sericulture����������������������������������������������������������������������  291 D.D. Barsagade 11 Temperate Tasar Culture������������������������������������������������������������������������  321 Rakesh K. Goel 12 Ericulture��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  345 B.K. Singh and S.A. Ahmed 13 Muga Sericulture�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  371 Babulal, A.A. Siddiqui, and S. Chouhan vii viii Contents 14 Insect Crop Pollinators����������������������������������������������������������������������������  397 M.S. Khan and Manish Kumar Yogi 15 Insects as Food������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  413 Geetanjali Mishra and Omkar 16 Entomoceuticals ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������  435 Geetanjali Mishra and Omkar 17 Mass Production of Biocontrol Agents of Insect Pests��������������������������  451 Pradyumn Kumar, Jaswinder Kaur, J.C. Sekhar, Soujanya P. Lakshmi, and S.B. Suby Contributors S.A. Ahmed  Central Muga Eri Research & Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Lahdoigarh, Assam, India R. Aruna  Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Babulal  Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore, Jammu and Kashmir, India D.D. Barsagade  Department of Zoology, MJF Educational Campus, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India T.P.S. Chauhan  Ex-Scientist, Central Silk Board, Niranjanpur, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India S. Chouhan  Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore, Jammu and Kashmir, India Rakesh K. Goel  Central Silk Board, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India Babul Lal Jat  Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India Jaswinder Kaur  Indian Institute of Maize Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, India H.D. Kaushik  Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India M.S. Khan  Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India M. Kishan Tej  Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India P. Kumar  Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Namkum, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India Pradyumn Kumar  Indian Institute of Maize Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, India ix x Contributors Yogesh Kumar  Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India Soujanya P. Lakshmi  Indian Institute of Maize Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, India Geetanjali Mishra  Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Y.D. Mishra (deceased)  Omkar  Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India J.C. Sekhar  Indian Institute of Maize Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, India K.K. Sharma  Lac Production Division, Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Namkum, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India A.A. Siddiqui  Former Scientist, Central Silk Board, Kalyanpur, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India B.K. Singh  Central Muga Eri Research & Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Lahdoigarh, Assam, India M.R. Srinivasan  Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India S.B. Suby  Indian Institute of Maize Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, India Mukesh K. Tayal  Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Miransahib, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Sunita Yadav  Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India Manish Kumar Yogi  Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India About the Editor Professor Omkar has been actively engaged for over three decades in teaching and for nearly four decades in research. He is currently working as professor and head at the Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, India, and seven more professional bodies. He is a recipient of the Young Indian Zoologist of 20th Century Gold Medal by the Zoological Society of India (2000); Prof. T. N. Ananthakrishnan Foundation Award by the Prof. T. N. Ananthakrishnan Foundation, Chennai (2012); Rescholar Award of Excellence in Agricultural Entomology by the Association of Entomologists, Patiala (2014); and Prof. G. S. Shukla Gold Medal by the Academy of Environmental Biology, India (2014). He has authored books including Concepts of Toxicology, Experimental Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Kin Recognition and Oviposition Strategies in Aphidophagous Ladybirds, and Monitoring and Management of Mango Fruit Fly and edited books such as Pesticides, Man and Biosphere, Prof. S. B. Singh Commemoration Volume of Zoological Society of India, Modern Approaches to Insect Pest Management, Predaceous Ladybirds of Uttar Pradesh, and Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security. Professor Omkar has published about 150 research papers in international journals and 62 in Indian journals, 21 book chapters, and 14 popular science articles. Most of his research revolves around identifying and harnessing the potential of beneficial insects, in particular ladybird beetles, for which he is globally recognized. He has supervised 20 Ph. D. theses and completed about ten research projects funded by state and central government agencies. He is a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, and chief editor of the Journal of Applied Bioscience besides being president of the International Society of Applied Biology. He works as a referee for about 40 international and 20 Indian journals of repute in addition to working as a subject expert in grant applications for the Swiss National Science Foundation, Switzerland, and a few central and state government funding agencies. He is the recipient of prestigious travel awards from the Indian National Science Academy, through which he has traveled, collaborated, and worked with global experts on ladybird biology at the University of East Anglia, UK, and the University of South Bohemia and Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic. xi 1 An Introduction to Industrial Entomology Omkar As we trace the footsteps of man, from the time of his evolution till the present day, we are able to pinpoint many milestones that grab attention. These milestones are noteworthy because they stand out as discoveries that have been astoundingly successful in lifting the life of human from that of a hunter and gatherer to the human of today, a highly sophisticated and civilized version. Each of these milestones, such as discovery of fire, development of instruments, wheel, agriculture, etc., have been aimed at easing the life of humans in utilizing the natural resources. Some of the most recent milestones have been related to the mechanization of processes that were erstwhile labour intensive, resulting in increased output as well as enhanced and sustained quality of products. Mechanization of agriculture, hand in hand with scientific input has revolutionized and led to a multifold increase in agricultural yield globally. Large-scale/industrial rearing and culture of insects for obtaining their products or for their direct use in food, pharmaceuticals, pest management, etc. can be referred to as industrial entomology. Industrial entomology can also be described in other way as use of insects, their activities and products on industrial scale for human welfare. The relationship of insects and humans has been largely a harmful or uneasy one. Due to their diverse and at times weird structures, seemingly indestructible armours, huge numbers, an almost ubiquitous presence, through folklore and mythology, negative spin of the media as well as silence of scientists, insects have obtained a largely villainous identity in the human minds at large. This is despite the fact that harmful insect species are less than 1 % of the total known insect species. It is also because of this fear that insects remain one of the most under exploited natural resources. This is despite the fact that their diverse structures as well as habitat adaptations make their study and utilization a necessity for further civilizational advancements. Omkar (*) Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, Uttar Pradesh, India e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017 Omkar (ed.), Industrial Entomology, DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-3304-9_1 1 2 Omkar Of the insects, honeybees, silkworms and lac insects have been identified as friendly and utilized on a large scale. The potential benefits of these insects and the utilization of their products have been known across centuries. The process of obtaining these insect products started from their collection in the wild to smallscale cottage industries and now larger concerns. While the processing of the produce of these insects has increasingly become more refined and utilized, there are still miles to go in increasing the efficacy of rearing these insects so as to increase the output multifold. Several insects work industriously to increase our crop productivity by facilitating and enhancing the crop pollination. Likewise, there are many that are quite helpful to farmers at global levels in suppressing the population of various crop pests, which affect crop production, being their natural enemies, i.e. parasitoids and predators. Other than these, there are other insects that have the potential of providing beneficial produce for the humans, such as in food and medicines. While insects have over the centuries been seen as a food source in multiple communities across the globe, it is only in recent years that the potential of insects as a sustained food source, especially a protein one, is being taken seriously. There is an increasing realization that our capacities to increase the production of the food that we currently eat are highly constrained by the limited agricultural land available to us, the limit on the yield capability of plants, the sustaining capacity of the soil, the rapidly changing climates as well as the burgeoning human population. There is not much scope of increase and we are slowly reaching a plateau. It is in this purview that the potential of insects as food of the future is increasingly being approved. Governmental as well as private think tanks and scientific organizations are increasingly supporting research into areas exploring the worth of insects as food. Owing to their small size, high reproductive outputs and faster development, insects can be reared much faster and more efficiently than other livestock. This efficacy is in addition to their known higher nutritional contents, which are much higher than most of our current common food items. In view of this need, there is an increased need to refine and industrialize the process of utilizing insects as food. Similarly, insects are also a source of medicines, though the hunt of compounds of medicinal value has till recently largely concentrated on botanicals. This is despite the amazing defensive chemical armoury that insects have at their disposal. These days, when antibiotic resistance has reached scary proportions, our hopes for future sustenance depend on the identification of novel chemicals from novel unexploited resources. Insects are potential resources here, and there is a lot of work to be done on their identification followed by the industrialization of their rearing and utilization. It is these aspects of entomology, that is, the industrialization of rearing and utilization of beneficial insects and their products, that come under the purview of industrial entomology. While there are many books of entomology that describe apiculture, lac culture, sericulture, etc. to the best of my knowledge, there is no book that talks about industrial entomology per se, exclusively and in depth. Also topics such as entomophagy, entomotherapy, mass rearing of biocontrol agents, etc. are 1  An Introduction to Industrial Entomology 3 almost completely out of the purview of most books. In this book, an attempt has been made to approach the three common cultures, i.e. apiculture, sericulture and lac culture in detail, with expert views, and also new potentials and exciting aspects of insects have also been given due to attention under the umbrella of industrial entomology. Insects will be the sustaining force of the future. They will not only be our sources, of food, medicines, clothes, etc., but will also be inspirations for further modernization and improvement of many of our current industrial processes, agricultural production, recreation or amusement. After all what can be more efficient than the production system of honeybees; the storage and traffic management system of ants; the architecture of the bees, termites and other insects; the richness of colours of the butterflies; the water and dust resistance of beetles; and many such other wonders. Insects should and will be the future inspirations. 2 Honeybee: Diversity, Castes and Life Cycle Sunita Yadav, Yogesh Kumar, and Babul Lal Jat Contents 2.1  Introduction 2.2  Honeybee Diversity 2.3  Honeybee Castes, Colony Organization and Life Cycle 2.4  Conclusions References 2.1  5  6  23  31  32 Introduction Honeybees are insects that come under order Hymenoptera and family Apidae and showed complete metamorphosis. Honeybee species are characterized by particular functional traits that facilitate pollination services to a greater or lesser degree (Bluthgen and Klein 2011). Based on morphometric, behavioural and biogeographical studies, 26 subspecies have been identified (Ruttner 1988; Sheppard et al. 1997; Sheppard and Meixner 2003; Engel 2004...
View Full Document

  • Fall '19
  • Honey bee

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes