NURS 6501: Advanced PathophysiologyMarianne AlfaroALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities(Alzheimer’s Association. 2016).Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is diagnosed when the patient has an objective memory impairment but no significant change in daily functioning.AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, resulting in a gradual, irreversible loss of memory and cognitive function (Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia, 2018).(Alzheimer’s Association, 2016)Alzheimer’s disease
The risk of developing AD is multifactorial. Preventable risk factors include type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and head injury. The nonpreventable risk factors are age and genetics(Mayeux & Stern,2012) Approximately 1/3 of people age 85 and older may suffer from Alzheimer's disease. Impairment is the most common presenting symptom; however, others may present atypically(Kumar, Singh & Ekavali. 2015) Alzheimer Disease is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States(Barbe, Morrone, Wolak-Thierry, Moustapha,Damien, & Novella, 2015). Etiology of Alzheimer’s Disease
Early-onset and late-onset. Both types have a genetic component.DifferencesTwo types of Alzheimer’s:Late-Onset Alzheimer'sEarly-Onset Alzheimer'sSigns first appear in a person's mid-60sSigns first appear between a person's 30s and mid-60sMost common typeVery rareMay involve a gene called APOE ɛ4Usually caused by gene changes passed down from parent to childBekris, L. M., Yu, C. E., Bird, T. D., & Tsuang, D. W. (2010)
•Forgetful•Short Term Memory Loss•Irritability•Agitation•Restlessness•Anxious•Depressed•Decreased Visuospatial Orientation•Hostile•Mood Swings•Decreased Problem Solving•Impaired Judgement•Dyspraxia The manifestations associated with AD and it’s disease process is dependent upon the type, disease progression, and individualized. The initial clinical manifestations are insidious and often attributed to forgetfulness, emotional upset, or other illness (Huether and McCance, 2017). Clinical Manifestations
In the last stages of AD, brain changes begin to affect different areas of the body.physical functions- swallowing balance bowel bladder These effects can increase vulnerability to additional health problems such as: aspirating into the lungs (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017).These diseases causes degeneration of brain tissue and nerve cells and it becomes harder for the brain to communicate with the body and function properly(Huether & McCance, 2017).Functional alterations such as activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living are also decreased(Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017).
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