Astro Final study guide

Astro Final study guide - Sun, moon, meteorites & Earth...

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Chapter 5 Asteroids-over 100,000 Phobos & Deimos – Martian moons-both are captured asteroids (slowed down near planet, lost energy Ceres-lrgest asteroid, over 1000 km Rubble pile – some asteroids are rubble piles of loosely consolidated fragments –ex Mathilde Kirkwood or resonance gaps-unpopulated areas in asteroid main belt – missing orbital periods , not actual gaps asteroids-remnants of material that formed in the inner part of the solar nebula & became the building blocks of the inner planets-low densities-some are primitive & some are differentiated-more small asteroids than large Vesta-best-known differentiated asteroid, basaltic surface & parent body of the eucrite meteorites (group of 30 basaltic meteorites) – they were chipped away from its crust – Vesta is 4 th solar system object for which we have samples (Earth, Moon & Mars) -DAWN mission will study Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres, believed to be early bodies, to find out about early solar system, because they turned out so differently – Vesta is dry & differentiated, Ceres is primitive w/water-bearing minerals, similar to icy moons 1 st Gaspra-an S-type main belt asteroid, highly irregular in shape, heavily cratered, younger than other main belt asteroid Idad Trojan asteroids-group of dark, distant asteroids orbitally associated w/Jupiter-exist in stable regions near Jupiter that contain several hundred known asteroids, collectively known as the Trojan asteroids- distinctive spectra -Trojan cloud is so stable , once an asteroid is trapped there it will remain there C-type asteroid – spectra similar to carbonaceous meteorities S-type asteroid-composition similar to stony or silicate metereorites-lighter in color Metallic meteorites come from the core-mantle boundary of a differentiated body Chapter 6 Comets-most primitive elements of solar system -water ice & carbon monoxide-water vapour is released fr. nucleas & ionized to become water, then broken by sunlight into hydrogen and hydroxyl(OH) Nucleas-heart of comet – called dirty snowball because it’s made of silicates & ice-releases an extended at. composed of the head(coma) and the tail – coma is brightest part of comet, tail is made up gas & dust-most comets have two tails-1)plasma tail or ion tail-charged particles caught in the solar wind- formed when gases are ionized-fluorescence of ionized carbon monoxide makes it glow- 2) dust tail – composed of dust tails(just as bright as plasma), curved, dust grains follow own orbits,
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Astro Final study guide - Sun, moon, meteorites & Earth...

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