Fundamentals of Business Process Management.pdf - Fundamentals of Business Process Management Marlon Dumas Marcello La Rosa Jan Mendling Hajo A Reijers

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Business Process Management Marlon Dumas ! Marcello La Rosa Jan Mendling ! Hajo A. Reijers Fundamentals of Business Process Management ! Marlon Dumas Institute of Computer Science University of Tartu Tartu, Estonia Marcello La Rosa Queensland University of Technology and NICTA Brisbane, Australia Jan Mendling Institute for Information Business Vienna University of Economics and Business Vienna, Austria Hajo A. Reijers Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Eindhoven University of Technology Eindhoven, The Netherlands ISBN 978-3-642-33142-8 ISBN 978-3-642-33143-5 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-33143-5 Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2013932467 ACM Computing Classification (1998): J.1, H.4, H.3.5, D.2 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Cover illustration: M.C. Escher’s “Drawing Hands” © 2012 The M.C. Escher Company-Holland. All rights reserved. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) To Inga and Maia—Marlon To Chiara and Lorenzo—Marcello To Stefanie—Jan To Maddy, Timon and Mayu—Hajo Foreword Business processes represent a core asset of corporations. They have direct impact on the attractiveness of products and services as perceived by the market. They determine tasks, jobs and responsibilities and by this, shape the work of every employee. Processes integrate systems, data, and resources within and across organizations and any failure can bring corporate life to a standstill. Processes determine the potential of an organization to adapt to new circumstances and to comply with a fast growing number of legislative requirements. Processes influence the revenue potential as much as they shape the cost profile of an organization. However, unlike other corporate assets such as products, services, workforce, brand, physical or monetary assets, the significance of business processes had not been appreciated for a long period. Despite the fact that processes are the lifeblood of an organization, they did not develop the status of a primary citizen in boardroom discussions and managerial decision-making processes. Only the growing demands for globalization, integration, standardization, innovation, agility and operational efficiency, and the related challenge of finding further variables in the corporate ecosystem that can be optimized, have finally increased the appetite for reflecting on and ultimately improving business processes. In response, over the last two decades a comprehensive set of tools, techniques, methods and entire methodologies has been developed providing support for all stages of the business process lifecycle. Relevant contributions have been made by diverse disciplines such as Industrial Engineering, Operations Management, Quality Management, Human Capital Management, corporate governance, conceptual modeling, workflow management and system engineering. Business Process Management (BPM) is the discipline that now faces the difficult, but rewarding task of consolidating and integrating the plethora of these approaches. This book is the first and most up-to-date contribution that faces and masters this challenge. It succinctly captures the current status of BPM and brings meaningful order and consistency into approaches that often have been developed, discussed and deployed in isolation. vii viii Foreword “Fundamentals of Business Process Management” derives its merits from its firm foundation in the latest applied BPM research. Relying on scientifically sound practices means capitalizing on evidence rather than depending on confidence. This clearly differentiates this much needed publication from many of its predecessors. In particular, it gives BPM the credibility that a still young and growing discipline requires. The book itself is also a compelling showcase for the importance of a new class of processes, i.e. long living, internationally distributed, complex and flexible business processes. In this case, it is the process of jointly writing a book involving four authors in four different countries. The team has addressed this challenge brilliantly and the outcome is an impressive compilation of the individual strengths of each author grounded in a shared understanding of the essential BPM fundamentals and a common passion for the topic. I have no doubts that this book will shape the toolset, and hopefully even more the mindset, of the current and future generations of BPM professionals. This publication has the potential to become a significant catalyst for future BPM success by establishing a common sense for the fundamentals of BPM upon which it can be further developed and tailored to individual circumstances. The book provides the needed consistency and rigor within and across the diverse and fast growing community of professionals and researchers committed to and passionate about the merits of the process-based organization. Finally, and maybe most of all, the book is an outstanding reference for all students who are keen to learn more about and want to embrace the fascination of BPM. This long missing BPM textbook addresses a severe shortcoming within the BPM community, i.e. the lack of resources to facilitate the introduction of BPM subjects into tertiary and corporate education. Making BPM more accessible to future decision makers ensures that processes will play the role they deserve. Brisbane, Australia Michael Rosemann Preface First, master the fundamentals. Larry Bird (1957–) Business Process Management (BPM) is a special field for more than one reason. First of all, BPM is a crossroad of multiple, quite different viewpoints. Business managers are attracted to BPM because of its demonstrated ability to deliver improvements in organizational performance, regulatory compliance and service quality. Industrial engineers see BPM as an opportunity to apply well-trodden manufacturing optimization techniques in the context of organizations that deliver services rather than physical products. Finally, Information Technology (IT) specialists appreciate the fact that BPM provides them with a shared language to communicate with business stakeholders. Furthermore, business process automation technology allows IT specialists to implement and monitor IT systems in a way that is aligned with the vision that business stakeholders have of the organization. In other words, BPM is a boundary-spanning field that serves as a melting pot for otherwise separate communities. For those who have experienced how business managers, industrial engineers and IT professionals often seem to live in different worlds, this shared field of interest is a remarkable opportunity to achieve a joint understanding of the inner workings of a business. A second special characteristic of BPM is that it is both actively practiced and actively researched. In other words, it is a field where there are both proven and established practices as well as open challenges. Businesses around the world are carrying out BPM initiatives with the aim to, for example, outperform their competitors or meet the demands of regulatory authorities. Academics in fields like computer science, management science, sociology, and engineering are working on the development of methods and techniques to support such initiatives. It is appropriate to see BPM as a “theory in practice” field. On the one hand, practical demands inspire the development of new methods and technologies. On the other hand, the application of these methods and technologies in practice feeds back to the drawing boards in universities and research centers. After teaching BPM to thousands of students and professionals over the past decade, we strongly feel the lack of a textbook to give a structure to our courses and to allow our audience to study for themselves beyond classwork and homework ix x Preface assignments. This situation is not due to a lack of excellent books on BPM—in fact there is a good number of them—but rather due to the cross-disciplinary and continuously evolving nature of BPM. There are excellent treatments of BPM from a business management perspective, most notably Harmon’s Business Process Change and Sharp and McDermott’s Workflow Modeling. Both of these books provide useful conceptual frameworks and practical advice and should definitely lie in the bookshelves (or better in the hands) of BPM practitioners. However, one needs an introductory background and preferably years of experience in order to truly appreciate the advice given in these books. Also, these books give little attention to technology aspects such as business process management systems and process intelligence tools. On the other side of the spectrum, other books adopt a computer science perspective to BPM, such as Van der Aalst and Van Hee’s Workflow Management and Weske’s Business Process Management, both focused on process modeling, analysis and automation for computer scientists. At a more specialized level, one can find a range of books focusing on process modeling using specific languages—for example Silver’s BPMN Method and Style. Against this background, we decided it was time to put together our combined teaching experience in BPM in order to deliver a textbook that: • Embraces BPM as a cross-disciplinary field, striking a balance between business management and IT aspects. • Covers the entire BPM lifecycle, all the way from identifying processes to analyzing, redesigning, implementing and monitoring these processes. • Follows a step-by-step approach punctuated by numerous examples, in order to make the content accessible to students who have little or no BPM background. • Contains numerous classroom-tested exercises, both inside each chapter and at the end of the chapters, so that students can test their skills incrementally and instructors have material for classwork, homework and projects. • Relies on a mature and standardized process modeling language, namely BPMN. In the spirit of a textbook, every chapter contains a number of elaborated examples and exercises. Some of these exercises are spread throughout the chapter and are intended to help the reader to incrementally put into action concepts and techniques exposed in the chapter in concrete scenarios. These “in-chapter” exercises are paired with sample solutions at the end of the chapter. In addition, every chapter closes with a number of further exercises for which no solutions are provided. Instructors may wish to use these latter exercises for assignments. Most chapters also contain “highlighted boxes” that provide complementary insights into a specific topic. These boxes are tangential to the flow of the book and may be skipped by readers who wish to concentrate on the essential concepts. Similarly, every chapter closes with a “Further Readings” section that provides external pointers for readers wishing to deepen their understanding of a specific topic. To better serve our readership, we have set up a website to collect course materials: . This website includes slides, lecture recordings, sample exams, links to related resources and additional exercises. Preface xi The book is designed to support courses of a wide variety. An in-depth course on BPM could cover all chapters in a balanced way. In order to fit the content into one semester though, it may be necessary to sacrifice one or two chapters. If this was required, our suggestion would be to skip Chap. 4 or 10. An introductory BPM course could skip Chaps. 2, 4, 7 and 10 while still providing a consistent picture of the field. A course on process automation for IT students could skip Chaps. 2, 5 and 6. A course on process modeling would focus on Chaps. 2 to 5, and possibly Chap. 9 if the intention is to produce executable process models. Chapters 3 and 4 can be integrated into a broader semester-long course on systems modeling. Finally, a process improvement course for business students might focus on Chap. 3 and Chaps. 5 to 8. Naturally, Chap. 1 could find its place in any of the above courses. Each chapter can be delivered as a combination of lectures and classwork sessions. Shorter chapters (1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 10) can be delivered in one lecture and one classwork session. Chapters 4, 8 and 9 may require two lectures and two classwork sessions each. Chapter 7 can be delivered across two lectures and two classwork sessions, or it can be delivered in one lecture and one classwork session by skipping the content on queues and flow analysis. This textbook is the result of many years of educational practice both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in more than half a dozen institutions, including Eindhoven University of Technology (The Netherlands), Queensland University of Technology (Australia), Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany), University of Tartu (Estonia), Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria) and National University of Colombia. The material in this textbook has also served as a basis for professional training courses delivered to organizations in Australia, The Netherlands and elsewhere. We are grateful to the thousands of students who over the past years have given us constructive feedback and encouragement. We also owe a lot to our many colleagues who encouraged us and provided us with feedback throughout the entire idea-to-textbook process. We would like to thank Wil van der Aalst, Raffaele Conforti, Monika Malinova, Johannes Prescher, Artem Polyvyanyy, Manfred Reichert, Jan Recker, Michael Rosemann, Matthias Schrepfer, Arthur ter Hofstede, Irene Vanderfeesten, J. Leon Zhao and Michael zur Muehlen, who all provided constructive feedback on drafts of the book. Fabio Casati and Boualem Benatallah provided us with initial encouragement to start the writing process. Special mentions are due to Matthias Weidlich who provided us with detailed and comprehensive suggestions, and Remco Dijkman who shared with us teaching material that served as input to Chaps. 2 and 9. Tartu, Estonia Brisbane, Australia Vienna, Austria Eindhoven, The Netherlands Marlon Dumas Marcello La Rosa Jan Mendling Hajo A. Reijers Contents 1 Introduction to Business Process Management . 1.1 Processes Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Ingredients of a Business Process . . . . . . 1.3 Origins and History of BPM . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 The Functional Organization . . . . 1.3.2 The Birth of Process Thinking . . . . 1.3.3 The Rise and Fall of BPR . . . . . . 1.4 The BPM Lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Solutions to Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Further Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 3 8 8 10 12 15 26 26 28 31 2 Process Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Focusing on Key Processes . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 The Designation Phase . . . . . . 2.1.2 The Evaluation Phase . . . . . . . 2.2 Designing a Process Architecture . . . . . 2.2.1 Identify Case Types . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Identify Functions for Case Types . 2.2.3 Construct Case/Function Matrices . 2.2.4 Identify Processes . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Complete the Process Architecture 2.3 Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Solutions to Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Further Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 33 34 38 42 44 45 49 50 55 57 57 59 60 3 Essential Process Modeling . . 3.1 First Steps with BPMN . . 3.2 Branching and Merging . . 3.2.1 Exclusive Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 67 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii xiv Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 72 77 79 82 89 89 93 95 4 Advanced Process Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Process Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Process Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 More on Rework and Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Parallel Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Uncontrolled Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Handling Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Message Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Temporal Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Racing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Handling Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Process Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Internal Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 External Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 Activity Timeouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.5 Non-interrupting Events and Complex Exceptions 4.5.6 Interlude: Event Sub-processes . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.7 Activity Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Processes and Business Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Process Choreographies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9 Solutions to Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10 Further Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11 Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 97 100 102 1...
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