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Unformatted text preview: ROGET'S THESAURUS OF ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES CLASS I WORDS EXPRESSING ABSTRACT RELATIONS SECTION I. EXISTENCE 1. BEING, IN THE ABSTRACT 1. Existence -- N. existence, being, entity, ens [Lat.], esse [Lat.], subsistence. reality, actuality; positiveness &c adj.; fact, matter of fact, sober reality; truth &c 494; actual existence. presence &c (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c 120. stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c 515; no joke. center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital principle. [Science of existence], ontology. V. exist, be; have being &c n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain, be the case; occur &c (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself, pass the time, vegetate. consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be constituted by. come into existence &c n.; arise &c (begin) 66; come forth &c (appear) 446. become &c (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c 161. abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay. Adj. existing &c v.; existent, under the sun; in existence &c n.; extant; afloat, afoot, on foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed. real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c 494; substantial, substantive; self-existing, selfexistent; essential. well-founded, well-grounded; unideal†, unimagined; not potential &c 2; authentic. Adv. actually &c adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed; de facto, ipso facto. Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; ergo sum cogito [Lat.], thinkest thou existence doth depend on time? [Byron]. 2. Inexistence -- N. inexistence†; nonexistence, nonsubsistence; nonentity, nil; negativeness &c adj.; nullity; nihility†, nihilism; tabula rasa [Lat.], blank; abeyance; absence &c 187; no such thing &c 4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion. annihilation; extinction &c (destruction) 162; extinguishment, extirpation, Nirvana, obliteration. V. not exist &c 1; have no existence &c 1; be null and void; cease to exist &c 1; pass away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c adj.; die out; disappear &c 449; melt away, dissolve, leave not a rack behind; go, be no more; die &c 360. annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c 756; destroy &c 162; take away; remove &c (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate. Adj. inexistent†, nonexistent &c 1; negative, blank; missing, omitted; absent &c 187; insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary. unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus [Lat.]; unsubstantial &c 4; vain. unborn, uncreated†, unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade. perished, annihilated, &c v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost, vanished, departed, gone with the wind; defunct &c (dead) 360. fabulous, ideal &c (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c 514. Adv. negatively, virtually &c adj.. Phr. non ens [Lat.]. 2. BEING, IN THE CONCRETE 3. Substantiality -- N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being, thing, object, article, item; something, a being, an existence; creature, body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff, substratum; matter &c 316; corporeity†, element, essential nature, groundwork, materiality, substantialness, vital part. [Totality of existences], world &c 318; plenum. Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible &c (material) 316; corporeal. Adv. substantially &c adj.; bodily, essentially. 4. Unsubstantiality -- N. unsubstantiality†, insubstantiality; nothingness, nihility†; no degree, no part, no quantity, no thing. nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never a one, ne'er a one [Contr.]; no such thing, none in the world; nothing whatever, nothing at all, nothing on earth; not a particle &c (smallness) 32; all talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of no importance, matter of no consequence. thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe, faggot voter; nominis umbra [Lat.], nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et praeterea nihil [Lat.]. shadow; phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (imagination) 515; ignis fatuus &c (luminary) 423 [Lat.]; such stuff as dreams are made of [Tempest]; air, thin air, vapor; bubble &c 353; baseless fabric of a vision [Tempest]; mockery. hollowness, blank; void &c (absence) 187. inanity, fool's paradise. V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c 449. Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without foundation, having no foundation. visionary &c (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c 137; spectral &c 980; dreamy; shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery, illusory, insubstantial, unreal. vacant, vacuous; empty &c 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow; nominal; null; inane. Phr. there's nothing in it; an ocean of dreams without a sound [Shelley]. 3. FORMAL EXISTENCE Internal conditions 5. Intrinsicality -- N. intrinsicality†, inbeing†, inherence, inhesion†; subjectiveness; ego; egohood†; essence, noumenon; essentialness† &c adj.; essential part, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, marrow, core, sap, lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul; important part &c (importance) 642. principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis†, diathesis†. habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition. endowment, capacity; capability &c (power) 157. moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c (speciality) 79; idiosyncrasy, oddity; idiocrasy &c (tendency) 176; diagnostics. V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c adj.. Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical†; fundamental, normal; implanted, inherent, essential, natural; innate, inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought; coeval with birth, genetous†, haematobious†, syngenic†; radical, incarnate, thoroughbred, hereditary, inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite†; connate, running in the blood; ingenerate†, ingenite†; indigenous; in the grain &c n.; bred in the bone, instinctive; inward, internal &c 221; to the manner born; virtual. characteristic &c (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable, incurable, incorrigible, ineradicable, fixed. Adv. intrinsically &c adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect, practically, virtually, substantially, au fond; fairly. Phr. character is higher than intellect [Emerson]; come give us a taste of your quality [Hamlet]; magnos homines virtute metimur non fortuna [Lat.] [Nepos]; non numero haec judicantur sed pondere [Lat.] [Cicero]; vital spark of heavenly flame [Pope]. External conditions 6. Extrinsicality -- N. extrinsicality†, objectiveness, non ego; extraneousness &c 57; accident; appearance, phenomenon &c 448. Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical†; extraneous &c (foreign) 57; modal, adventitious; ascititious†, adscititious†; incidental, accidental, nonessential; contingent, fortuitous. implanted, ingrafted†; inculcated, infused. outward, apparent &c (external) 220. Adv. extrinsically &c adj.. 4. MODAL EXISTENCE Absolute 7. State -- N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim, mood, pickle, plight, temper; aspect &c (appearance) 448, dilemma, pass, predicament. constitution, habitude, diathesis†; frame, fabric &c 329; stamp, set, fit, mold, mould. mode, modality, schesis†; form &c (shape) 240. tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style, character. V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state &c n.; be on a footing, do, fare; come to pass. Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic. Adv. conditionally &c adj.; as the matter stands, as things are; such being the case &c 8. Relative 8. Circumstance -- N. circumstance, situation, phase, position, posture, attitude, place, point; terms; regime; footing, standing, status. occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c (event) 151. predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass, push; occurrence; turning point. bearings, how the land lies. surroundings, context, environment 232; location 184. contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153, attribution 155. Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal; contingent, incidental; adventitious &c (extrinsic) 6; limitative†. Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c n., the circumstances, conditions &c 7; thus, in such wise. accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of the circumstances; that being so, sith†, since, seeing that. as matters stand; as things go, as times go. conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be so; depending on circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain conditions; if it so happen, if it so turn out; in the event of; in such a contingency, in such a case, in such an event; provisionally, unless, without. according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may happen, as it may turn out, as it may be; as the case may be, as the wind blows; pro re nata [Lat.]. Phr. yet are my sins not those of circumstance [Lytton]. SECTION II. RELATION 1. ABSOLUTE RELATION 9. Relation -- N. relation, bearing, reference, connection, concern, cognation; correlation &c 12; analogy; similarity &c 17; affinity, homology, alliance, homogeneity, association; approximation &c (nearness) 197; filiation &c (consanguinity) 11; interest; relevancy &c 23; dependency, relationship, relative position. comparison &c 464; ratio, proportion. link, tie, bond of union. V. be related &c adj.; have a relation &c n.; relate to, refer to; bear upon, regard, concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to, belong to, appertain to; answer to; interest. bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate, draw a parallel; link &c 43. Adj. relative; correlative &c 12; cognate; relating to &c v.; relative to, in relation with, referable or referrible to†; belonging to &c v.; appurtenant to, in common with. related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to; en rapport, in touch with. approximative†, approximating; proportional, proportionate, proportionable; allusive, comparable. in the same category &c 75; like &c 17; relevant &c (apt) 23; applicable, equiparant†. Adv. relatively &c adj.; pertinently &c 23. thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning &c v.; anent; relating to, as relates to; with relation, with reference to, with respect to, with regard to; in respect of; while speaking of, a propos of [Fr.]; in connection with; by the way, by the by; whereas; for as much as, in as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of, on the score of; quoad hoc [Lat.]; pro re nata [Lat.]; under the head of &c (class) 75, of; in the matter of, in re. Phr. thereby hangs a tale [Taming of the Shrew]. 10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation -- N. irrelation†, dissociation; misrelation†; inapplicability; inconnection†; multifariousness; disconnection &c (disjunction) 44; inconsequence, independence; incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c (disagreement) 24; heterogeneity; unconformity &c 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil ad rem [Lat.]; intrusion &c 24; non-pertinence. V. have no relation to &c 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern with &c 9, have no business with; not concern &c 9; have no business there, have nothing to do with, intrude &c 24. bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in head and shoulders. Adj. irrelative†, irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent, unallied; unconnected, disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular; extraneous, strange, alien, foreign, outlandish, exotic. not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c 83. irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose; impertinent, inapposite, beside the mark, a propos de bottes [Fr.]; aside from the purpose, away from the purpose, foreign to the purpose, beside the purpose, beside the question, beside the transaction, beside the point; misplaced &c (intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record. remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor there, quite another thing; detached, segregate; disquiparant†. multifarious; discordant &c 24. incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic. Adv. parenthetically &c adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant [Fr.], incidentally; irrespectively &c adj.; without reference to, without regard to; in the abstract &c 87; a se. 11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity -- N. consanguinity, relationship, kindred, blood; parentage &c (paternity) 166; filiation†, affiliation; lineage, agnation†, connection, alliance; family connection, family tie; ties of blood; nepotism. kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection; sibling, sib; next of kin; uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin-german†; first cousin, second cousin; cousin once removed, cousin twice removed; &c near relation, distant relation; brother, sister, one's own flesh and blood. family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood†. race, stock, generation; sept &c 166; stirps, side; strain; breed, clan, tribe, nation. V. be related to &c adj.. claim relationship with &c n.. with. Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied, collateral; cognate, agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal. intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely related, distantly related, allied; german. 12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation -- N. reciprocalness &c adj.†; reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality, correlation, interdependence, interrelation, connection, link, association; interchange &c 148; exchange, barter. reciprocator, reprocitist. V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c 148; exchange; counterchange†. Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual†, correlative, reciprocative, interrelated, closely related; alternate; interchangeable; interdependent; international; complemental, complementary. Adv. mutually, mutatis mutandis [Lat.]; vice versa; each other, one another; by turns &c 148; reciprocally &c adj.. Phr. happy in our mutual help [Milton]. 13. Identity -- N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence; convertibility; equality &c 27; selfness†, self, oneself; identification. monotony, tautology &c (repetition) 104. facsimile &c (copy) 21; homoousia: alter ego &c (similar) 17; ipsissima verba &c (exactness) 494 [Lat.]; same; self, very, one and the same; very thing, actual thing; real McCoy; no other; one and only; in the flesh. V. be identical &c adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge. treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize the identity of. Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c n.. selfsame, one and the same, homoousian†. coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one; equivalent &c (equal) 27; tweedle dee and tweedle dum [Lat.]; much the same, of a muchness†; unaltered. Adv. identically &c adj.; on all fours. 14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety -- N. contrariety, contrast, foil, antithesis, oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c (opposition) 708; clashing, repugnance. inversion &c 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the converse, the antipodes, the antithesis, the other extreme. V. be contrary &c adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo [Lat.]. invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for end, turn upside down, turn inside out. contradict, contravene; antagonize &c 708. Adj. contrary, contrarious†, contrariant†; opposite, counter, dead against; converse, reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted, antipodean, antagonistic, opposing; conflicting, inconsistent, contradictory, at cross purposes; negative; hostile &c 703. differing toto coelo [Lat.]; diametrically opposite; diametrically opposed; as opposite as black and white, as opposite as light and darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite as the poles; as different as night and day; Hyperion to a satyr [Hamlet]; quite the contrary, quite the reverse; no such thing, just the other way, tout au contraire [Fr.]. Adv. contrarily &c adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the contrary, nay rather; vice versa; on the other hand &c (in compensation) 30. Phr. all concord's born of contraries [B. Jonson]. Thesis, antithesis, synthesis [Marx]. 15. Difference -- N. difference; variance, variation, variety; diversity, dissimilarity &c 18; disagreement &c 24; disparity &c (inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction; alteration. modification, permutation, moods and tenses. nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle distinction; shade of difference, nuance; discrimination &c 465; differentia. different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another pair of shoes; horse of a different color; this that or the other. V. be different &c adj.; differ, vary, ablude†, mismatch, contrast; divaricate; differ toto coelo [Lat.], differ longo intervallo [It]. vary, modify &c (change) 140. discriminate &c 465. Adj. differing &c v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious, polyglot; distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified; diversified, various, divers, all manner of, all kinds of; variform &c 81; daedal†. other, another, not the same; unequal &c 28. unmatched; widely apart, poles apart, distinctive; characteristic, discriminative, distinguishing. incommensurable, incommensurate. Adv. differently &c adj.. Phr. il y a fagots et fagots. 2. CONTINUOUS RELATION 16. Uniformity -- N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness; consistency; connaturality†, connaturalness†; homology; accordance; conformity &c 82; agreement &c 23; consonance, uniformness. regularity, constancy, even tenor, routine; monotony. V. be uniform &c adj.; accord with &c 23; run through. become uniform &c adj.; conform to &c 82. render uniform, homogenize &c adj.; assimilate, level, smooth, dress. Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous; of a piece [Fr.], consistent, connatural†; monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged, undeviating, unvaried, unvarying. unsegmented. Adv. uniformly &c adj.; uniformly with &c (conformably) 82; in harmony with &c (agreeing) 23. always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly, never otherwise; by clockwork. Phr. ab uno disce omnes [Lat.]. 16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity -- N. diversity, irregularity, unevenness; multiformity &c 81; unconformity &c 83; roughness &c 256; dissimilarity, dissimilitude, divarication, divergence. Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c 256; multifarious; multiform &c 81; of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts of, all kinds of. Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere. 3. PARTIAL RELATION 17. Similarity -- N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude, semblance; affinity, approximation, parallelism; agreement &c 23; analogy, analogicalness†; correspondence, homoiousia†, parity. connaturalness†, connaturality†; brotherhood, family likeness. alliteration, rhyme, pun. repetition &c 104; sameness &c (identity) 13; uniformity &c 16; isogamy†. analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate, twin, double, counterpart, brother, sister; one's second self, alter ego, chip of the old block, par nobile fratrum [Lat.], Arcades ambo†, birds of a feather, et hoc genus omne [Lat.]; gens de meme famille [Fr.]. parallel; simile; type &c (metaphor) 521; image &c (representation) 554; photograph; close resemblance, striking resemblance, speaking resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful resemblance. V. be similar &c adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack of, savor of, approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after; imitate &c 19; favor, span [U.S.]. render similar &c adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near; connaturalize†, make alike; rhyme, pun. Adj. similar; resembling &c v.; like, alike; twin. analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece [Fr.]; such as, so; homoiousian†. connatural†, congener, allied to; akin to &c (consanguineous) 11. approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of, in the ballpark, such like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating, representing. exact &c (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to life, the very im...
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