Unformatted text preview: ROGET'S THESAURUS
ENGLISH WORDS AND PHRASES
WORDS EXPRESSING ABSTRACT RELATIONS
1. BEING, IN THE ABSTRACT
1. Existence -- N. existence, being, entity, ens [Lat.], esse [Lat.], subsistence.
reality, actuality; positiveness &c adj.; fact, matter of fact, sober reality; truth &c 494;
presence &c (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c 120.
stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c 515; no joke.
center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital principle.
[Science of existence], ontology.
V. exist, be; have being &c n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain, be the case; occur &c
(event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself, pass the time, vegetate.
consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be constituted by.
come into existence &c n.; arise &c (begin) 66; come forth &c (appear) 446.
become &c (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c 161.
abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay.
Adj. existing &c v.; existent, under the sun; in existence &c n.; extant; afloat, afoot, on
foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed.
real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c 494; substantial, substantive; self-existing, selfexistent; essential.
well-founded, well-grounded; unideal†, unimagined; not potential &c 2; authentic.
Adv. actually &c adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed; de facto, ipso facto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; ergo sum cogito [Lat.], thinkest thou existence doth depend on
2. Inexistence -- N. inexistence†; nonexistence, nonsubsistence; nonentity, nil;
negativeness &c adj.; nullity; nihility†, nihilism; tabula rasa [Lat.], blank; abeyance;
absence &c 187; no such thing &c 4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion.
annihilation; extinction &c (destruction) 162; extinguishment, extirpation, Nirvana,
V. not exist &c 1; have no existence &c 1; be null and void; cease to exist &c 1; pass
away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c adj.; die out; disappear &c 449; melt away,
dissolve, leave not a rack behind; go, be no more; die &c 360.
annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c 756; destroy &c 162; take away; remove
&c (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate.
Adj. inexistent†, nonexistent &c 1; negative, blank; missing, omitted; absent &c 187;
insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary. unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus [Lat.]; unsubstantial &c 4; vain.
unborn, uncreated†, unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade.
perished, annihilated, &c v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost, vanished, departed, gone
with the wind; defunct &c (dead) 360.
fabulous, ideal &c (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c 514.
Adv. negatively, virtually &c adj..
Phr. non ens [Lat.].
2. BEING, IN THE CONCRETE
3. Substantiality -- N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being, thing, object, article,
item; something, a being, an existence; creature, body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff,
substratum; matter &c 316; corporeity†, element, essential nature, groundwork,
materiality, substantialness, vital part.
[Totality of existences], world &c 318; plenum.
Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible &c (material) 316;
Adv. substantially &c adj.; bodily, essentially.
4. Unsubstantiality -- N. unsubstantiality†, insubstantiality; nothingness, nihility†; no
degree, no part, no quantity, no thing.
nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never a one, ne'er a one
[Contr.]; no such thing, none in the world; nothing whatever, nothing at all, nothing on
earth; not a particle &c (smallness) 32; all talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of
no importance, matter of no consequence.
thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe, faggot voter; nominis
umbra [Lat.], nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et praeterea nihil [Lat.].
shadow; phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (imagination) 515; ignis
fatuus &c (luminary) 423 [Lat.]; such stuff as dreams are made of [Tempest]; air, thin air,
vapor; bubble &c 353; baseless fabric of a vision [Tempest]; mockery.
hollowness, blank; void &c (absence) 187.
inanity, fool's paradise.
V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c 449.
Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without foundation, having no
visionary &c (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c 137; spectral &c 980; dreamy;
shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery, illusory, insubstantial,
vacant, vacuous; empty &c 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow; nominal; null; inane.
Phr. there's nothing in it; an ocean of dreams without a sound [Shelley].
3. FORMAL EXISTENCE
Internal conditions 5. Intrinsicality -- N. intrinsicality†, inbeing†, inherence, inhesion†; subjectiveness; ego;
egohood†; essence, noumenon; essentialness† &c adj.; essential part, quintessence,
incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith, marrow, core, sap, lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul;
important part &c (importance) 642.
principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis†, diathesis†.
habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition.
endowment, capacity; capability &c (power) 157.
moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c (speciality) 79; idiosyncrasy,
oddity; idiocrasy &c (tendency) 176; diagnostics.
V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c adj..
Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical†; fundamental, normal;
implanted, inherent, essential, natural; innate, inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought;
coeval with birth, genetous†, haematobious†, syngenic†; radical, incarnate, thoroughbred,
hereditary, inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite†; connate, running in the blood;
ingenerate†, ingenite†; indigenous; in the grain &c n.; bred in the bone, instinctive;
inward, internal &c 221; to the manner born; virtual.
characteristic &c (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable, incurable, incorrigible,
Adv. intrinsically &c adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect, practically, virtually,
substantially, au fond; fairly.
Phr. character is higher than intellect [Emerson]; come give us a taste of your quality
[Hamlet]; magnos homines virtute metimur non fortuna [Lat.] [Nepos]; non numero haec
judicantur sed pondere [Lat.] [Cicero]; vital spark of heavenly flame [Pope].
6. Extrinsicality -- N. extrinsicality†, objectiveness, non ego; extraneousness &c 57;
accident; appearance, phenomenon &c 448.
Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical†; extraneous &c (foreign) 57;
modal, adventitious; ascititious†, adscititious†; incidental, accidental, nonessential;
implanted, ingrafted†; inculcated, infused.
outward, apparent &c (external) 220.
Adv. extrinsically &c adj..
4. MODAL EXISTENCE
7. State -- N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim, mood, pickle, plight,
temper; aspect &c (appearance) 448, dilemma, pass, predicament.
constitution, habitude, diathesis†; frame, fabric &c 329; stamp, set, fit, mold, mould.
mode, modality, schesis†; form &c (shape) 240.
tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style, character.
V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state &c n.; be on a footing,
do, fare; come to pass. Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic.
Adv. conditionally &c adj.; as the matter stands, as things are; such being the case &c 8.
8. Circumstance -- N. circumstance, situation, phase, position, posture, attitude, place,
point; terms; regime; footing, standing, status.
occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c (event) 151.
predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass, push; occurrence;
bearings, how the land lies.
surroundings, context, environment 232; location 184.
contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153, attribution 155.
Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal; contingent,
incidental; adventitious &c (extrinsic) 6; limitative†.
Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c n., the circumstances, conditions
&c 7; thus, in such wise.
accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of the circumstances;
that being so, sith†, since, seeing that.
as matters stand; as things go, as times go.
conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be so; depending on
circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain conditions; if it so happen, if it so
turn out; in the event of; in such a contingency, in such a case, in such an event;
provisionally, unless, without.
according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may happen, as it may
turn out, as it may be; as the case may be, as the wind blows; pro re nata [Lat.].
Phr. yet are my sins not those of circumstance [Lytton].
1. ABSOLUTE RELATION
9. Relation -- N. relation, bearing, reference, connection, concern, cognation; correlation
&c 12; analogy; similarity &c 17; affinity, homology, alliance, homogeneity, association;
approximation &c (nearness) 197; filiation &c (consanguinity) 11; interest; relevancy &c
23; dependency, relationship, relative position.
comparison &c 464; ratio, proportion.
link, tie, bond of union.
V. be related &c adj.; have a relation &c n.; relate to, refer to; bear upon, regard,
concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to, belong to, appertain to; answer to;
bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate, draw a parallel; link
Adj. relative; correlative &c 12; cognate; relating to &c v.; relative to, in relation with,
referable or referrible to†; belonging to &c v.; appurtenant to, in common with. related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to; en rapport, in touch
approximative†, approximating; proportional, proportionate, proportionable; allusive,
in the same category &c 75; like &c 17; relevant &c (apt) 23; applicable, equiparant†.
Adv. relatively &c adj.; pertinently &c 23.
thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning &c v.; anent; relating
to, as relates to; with relation, with reference to, with respect to, with regard to; in respect
of; while speaking of, a propos of [Fr.]; in connection with; by the way, by the by;
whereas; for as much as, in as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of, on the score
of; quoad hoc [Lat.]; pro re nata [Lat.]; under the head of &c (class) 75, of; in the matter
of, in re.
Phr. thereby hangs a tale [Taming of the Shrew].
10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation -- N. irrelation†, dissociation; misrelation†;
inapplicability; inconnection†; multifariousness; disconnection &c (disjunction) 44;
inconsequence, independence; incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c (disagreement)
24; heterogeneity; unconformity &c 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil ad rem [Lat.];
intrusion &c 24; non-pertinence.
V. have no relation to &c 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern with &c 9, have no
business with; not concern &c 9; have no business there, have nothing to do with, intrude
bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in head and shoulders.
Adj. irrelative†, irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent, unallied; unconnected,
disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular; extraneous, strange, alien, foreign, outlandish,
not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c 83.
irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose; impertinent, inapposite,
beside the mark, a propos de bottes [Fr.]; aside from the purpose, away from the purpose,
foreign to the purpose, beside the purpose, beside the question, beside the transaction,
beside the point; misplaced &c (intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record.
remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor there, quite another thing;
detached, segregate; disquiparant†.
multifarious; discordant &c 24.
incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic.
Adv. parenthetically &c adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant [Fr.], incidentally;
irrespectively &c adj.; without reference to, without regard to; in the abstract &c 87; a se.
11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity -- N. consanguinity, relationship, kindred,
blood; parentage &c (paternity) 166; filiation†, affiliation; lineage, agnation†, connection,
alliance; family connection, family tie; ties of blood; nepotism.
kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection; sibling, sib; next of kin;
uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin-german†; first cousin, second cousin; cousin
once removed, cousin twice removed; &c near relation, distant relation; brother, sister,
one's own flesh and blood.
family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood†. race, stock, generation; sept &c 166; stirps, side; strain; breed, clan, tribe, nation.
V. be related to &c adj.. claim relationship with &c n.. with.
Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied, collateral; cognate,
agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal.
intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely related, distantly related,
12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation -- N. reciprocalness &c adj.†;
reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality, correlation, interdependence, interrelation,
connection, link, association; interchange &c 148; exchange, barter.
V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c 148; exchange; counterchange†.
Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual†, correlative, reciprocative, interrelated, closely
related; alternate; interchangeable; interdependent; international; complemental,
Adv. mutually, mutatis mutandis [Lat.]; vice versa; each other, one another; by turns &c
148; reciprocally &c adj..
Phr. happy in our mutual help [Milton].
13. Identity -- N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence; convertibility; equality
&c 27; selfness†, self, oneself; identification.
monotony, tautology &c (repetition) 104.
facsimile &c (copy) 21; homoousia: alter ego &c (similar) 17; ipsissima verba &c
(exactness) 494 [Lat.]; same; self, very, one and the same; very thing, actual thing; real
McCoy; no other; one and only; in the flesh.
V. be identical &c adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge.
treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize the identity of.
Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c n.. selfsame, one and the same, homoousian†.
coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one; equivalent &c (equal) 27;
tweedle dee and tweedle dum [Lat.]; much the same, of a muchness†; unaltered.
Adv. identically &c adj.; on all fours.
14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety -- N. contrariety, contrast, foil, antithesis,
oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c (opposition) 708; clashing, repugnance.
inversion &c 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the converse, the antipodes,
the antithesis, the other extreme.
V. be contrary &c adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo [Lat.].
invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for end, turn upside down,
turn inside out.
contradict, contravene; antagonize &c 708.
Adj. contrary, contrarious†, contrariant†; opposite, counter, dead against; converse,
reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted, antipodean, antagonistic, opposing; conflicting,
inconsistent, contradictory, at cross purposes; negative; hostile &c 703.
differing toto coelo [Lat.]; diametrically opposite; diametrically opposed; as opposite
as black and white, as opposite as light and darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite as the poles; as different as night and day; Hyperion to a satyr [Hamlet]; quite
the contrary, quite the reverse; no such thing, just the other way, tout au contraire [Fr.].
Adv. contrarily &c adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the contrary, nay rather; vice
versa; on the other hand &c (in compensation) 30.
Phr. all concord's born of contraries [B.
Thesis, antithesis, synthesis [Marx].
15. Difference -- N. difference; variance, variation, variety; diversity, dissimilarity &c
18; disagreement &c 24; disparity &c (inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction;
modification, permutation, moods and tenses.
nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle distinction; shade of
difference, nuance; discrimination &c 465; differentia.
different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another pair of shoes; horse of a
different color; this that or the other.
V. be different &c adj.; differ, vary, ablude†, mismatch, contrast; divaricate; differ toto
coelo [Lat.], differ longo intervallo [It].
vary, modify &c (change) 140.
discriminate &c 465.
Adj. differing &c v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious, polyglot;
distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified; diversified, various, divers, all manner of,
all kinds of; variform &c 81; daedal†.
other, another, not the same; unequal &c 28.
unmatched; widely apart, poles apart, distinctive; characteristic, discriminative,
Adv. differently &c adj..
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots.
2. CONTINUOUS RELATION
16. Uniformity -- N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness; consistency;
connaturality†, connaturalness†; homology; accordance; conformity &c 82; agreement &c
23; consonance, uniformness.
regularity, constancy, even tenor, routine; monotony.
V. be uniform &c adj.; accord with &c 23; run through.
become uniform &c adj.; conform to &c 82.
render uniform, homogenize &c adj.; assimilate, level, smooth, dress.
Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous; of a piece [Fr.], consistent, connatural†;
monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged, undeviating, unvaried, unvarying.
Adv. uniformly &c adj.; uniformly with &c (conformably) 82; in harmony with &c
always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly, never otherwise; by
clockwork. Phr. ab uno disce omnes [Lat.].
16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity -- N. diversity, irregularity,
unevenness; multiformity &c 81; unconformity &c 83; roughness &c 256; dissimilarity,
dissimilitude, divarication, divergence.
Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c 256; multifarious; multiform &c 81;
of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts of, all kinds of.
Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere.
3. PARTIAL RELATION
17. Similarity -- N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude, semblance; affinity,
approximation, parallelism; agreement &c 23; analogy, analogicalness†; correspondence,
connaturalness†, connaturality†; brotherhood, family likeness.
alliteration, rhyme, pun.
repetition &c 104; sameness &c (identity) 13; uniformity &c 16; isogamy†.
analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate, twin, double,
counterpart, brother, sister; one's second self, alter ego, chip of the old block, par nobile
fratrum [Lat.], Arcades ambo†, birds of a feather, et hoc genus omne [Lat.]; gens de
meme famille [Fr.].
parallel; simile; type &c (metaphor) 521; image &c (representation) 554; photograph;
close resemblance, striking resemblance, speaking resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful
V. be similar &c adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack of, savor of,
approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after; imitate &c 19; favor, span [U.S.].
render similar &c adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near; connaturalize†, make
alike; rhyme, pun.
Adj. similar; resembling &c v.; like, alike; twin.
analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece [Fr.]; such as, so; homoiousian†.
connatural†, congener, allied to; akin to &c (consanguineous) 11.
approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of, in the ballpark, such
like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating, representing.
exact &c (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to life, the very im...
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